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Flashcards in chapter 5 Deck (244):
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nose

lined with mucous membrane and fine hairs
acts as a filter to moisten and warm entering air

1

nasal septum

partition separating the right and left nasal cavities

2

paranasal sinuses

air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities

3

pharynx

food and air passageway
(throat)

4

adenoids

lymphoid tissue located behind the nasal cavity

5

tonsils

lymphoid tissue located behind the mouth

6

larynx

location of vocal cords
air enters
(voice box)

7

epiglottis

flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening of and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing

8

trachea

passage way for air to bronchi
(windpipe)

9

bronchus (pl. bronchi)

branch of trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides
(bronchial tree)

10

bronchioles

smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree

11

alveolus (pl. alveoli)

air sacs at end of bronchioles
O2 &CO2 exchange through alveolar walls and capillaries

12

lungs

two spongelike organs in thoracic cavity
right- 3 lobes
left- 2 lobes

13

pleura

double-folded serous membrane covering each lung and thoracic cavity
pleural cavity- small space between, contains serous fluid

14

diaphragm

muscular partition that separates the thoracic & abdominal cavities
aids in breathing process: contract- pull in air, relax- push air out

15

mediastinum

space between the lungs
contains heart, esophagus, trachea, great blood vessels

16

adenoid/o

adenoids

17

alveol/o

alveolus

18

bronchi/o, bronch/o

bronchus

19

diaphragmat/o, phren/o

diaphragm

20

epiglott/o

epiglottis

21

laryng/o

larynx

22

lob/o

lobe

23

nas/o, rhin/o

nose

24

pharyng/o

pharynx

25

pleur/o

pleura

26

pneum/o, pneumat/o, pneumon/o

lung, air

27

pulmon/o

lung

28

sept/o

septum (wall off, fence)

29

sinus/o

sinus

30

thorac/o

thorax (chest)

31

tonsill/o

tonsil

32

trache/o

trachea

33

atel/o

imperfect, incomplete

34

capn/o

carbon dioxide

35

hem/o, hemat/o

blood

36

muc/o

mucus

37

orth/o

straight

38

ox/i, ox/o

oxygen

39

phon/o

sound, voice

40

py/o

pus

41

somn/o

sleep

42

spir/o

breath, breathing

43

a-, an-

absence of, without

44

endo-

within

45

eu-

normal, good

46

pan-

all, total

47

poly-

many, much

48

tachy-

fast, rapid

49

-algia

pain

50

-ar, -ary, -eal

pertaining to

51

-cele

hernia, protrusion

52

-centesis

surgical puncture to aspirate fluid

53

-ectasis

stretching out, dilation, expansion

54

-emia

blood condition

55

-graphy

process of recording, radiographic imaging

56

-meter

measurement

57

-pexy

surgical fixation, suspension

58

-pnea

breathing

59

-rrhagia

rapid flow of blood

60

-scope

instrument used for visual examination

61

-scopic

pertaining to visual examination

62

-scopy

visual examination

63

-spasm

sudden, involuntary muscle contraction

64

-stenosis

constriction, narrowing

65

-stomy

creation of an artificial opening

66

-thorax

chest

67

-tomy

cut into, incision

68

adenoidtis

inflammation of adenoids

69

alveolitis

inflammation of alveolus

70

atelectasis

incomplete expansion (of the lungs)

72

bronchiectasis

dilation of bronchi

73

bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchi

74

bronchogenic carcinoma

cancerous tumor originating in a bronchus

75

bronchopneumonia

diseased state of the bronchi and lungs (caused by infection

76

diaphragmatocele

hernia of the diaphragm

77

epiglottitis

inflammation of the epiglottis

78

hemothorax

blood in the chest (pleural space)

79

laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx

80

laryngotracheobronchitis

inflammation of larynx, trachea, bronchi (croup)

81

lobar pneumonia

pertaining to the lobe, diseased state of the lung (infection of one or more lobes of the lung)

82

nasopharyngitis

inflammation of the nose and pharynx

83

pansinusitis

inflammation of all sinuses

84

pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynx

85

pleuritis

inflammation of the pleura (pleurisy)

86

pneumatocele

hernia of the lung (lung tissue protrudes through an opening in the chest)

87

pneumoconiosis

abnormal condition of dust in the lungs

88

pneumonia

diseased state of the lung (infection & inflammation caused by bacteria

89

pneumonitis

inflammation of the lung

90

pneumothorax

air in the chest, which causes collapse of the lung (result of open chest wound)

91

pulmonary neoplasm

pertaining to the lung, new growth (tumor)

92

pyothorax

pus in the chest (empyema)

93

rhinitis

inflammation of the (mucous membrane) nose

94

rhinomycosis

abnormal condition of fungus in the nose

95

rhinorrhagia

rapid flow of blood from the nose (epistaxis)

96

thoracalgia

pain in the chest

97

tonsillitis

inflammation of the tonsils

98

tracheitis

inflammation of the trachea

99

tracheostenosis

narrowing of the trachea

100

acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

respiratory failure as a result of disease or injury

101

asthma

respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath
caused by constriction of airways

102

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

progressive lung disease that restricts air flow, which makes breathing difficult

103

coccidioidmycosis

fungal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body (valley fever)

104

cor pulmonale

serious cardiac disease associated with chronic lung disorders

105

croup

condition resulting from acute obstruction of the larynx, characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, stridor

106

cystic fibrosis (CF)

hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, pancreatic deficiency

107

deviated septum

one part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformation or injury of the nasal septum

108

emphysema

stretching of lung tissue caused by alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity

109

epistaxis

nosebleed (rhinorrhagia)

110

influenza

highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus (flu)

111

legionnaire disease

a lobar pneumonia caused by acteria

112

obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absence of breathing

113

pertussis

highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowning inspiration (whooping cough)

114

pleural effusion

fluid in the pleural space caused by a disease process or trauma

115

pulmonary edema

fluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles

116

pulmonary embolism (PE)

matter foreign to circulation, carried to the pulmonary artery and veins, where it blocks circulation to the lungs and can be fatal.

117

tuberculosis (TB)

an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus, spread by inhalation of small particles usually affecting the lungs

118

upper respiratory infection (URI)

infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx (cold)

119

adenoidectomy

excision of the adenoids

120

adenotome

surgical instrument used to cut the adenoids

121

bronchoplasty

surgical repair of a bronchus

122

laryngectomy

excision of the larynx

123

laryngoplasty

surgical repair of the larynx

124

laryngostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the larynx

125

laryngotracheotomy

incision of the larynx and trachea

126

lobectomy

excision of a lobe (of the lung)

127

pleuropexy

surgical fixation of the pleura

128

pneumobronchotomy

incision of lung and bronchus

129

pneumonectomy

excision of a lung

130

rhinoplasty

surgical repair of the nose

131

septoplasty

surgical repair of the nasal septum

132

septotomy

incision into the nasal septum

133

sinusotomy

incision of a sinus

134

thoracocentesis

surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity (thoracentesis)

135

thoracotomy

incision into the chest cavity

136

tonsillectomy

excision of the tonsils

137

tracheoplasty

surgical repair of the trachea

138

tracheostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the trachea

139

tracheotomy

incision of the trachea

140

bronchoscope

instrument used for visual examination of the bronchi

141

bronchoscopy

visual examination of the bronchi

142

endoscope

instrument used for visual examination within a hollow organ or body cavity

143

endoscopic

pertaining to visual examination within a hollow organ or body cavity

144

endoscopy

visual examination within a hollow organ or body cavity

145

laryngoscope

instrument used for visual examination of the larynx

146

laryngoscopy

visual examination of the larynx

147

thoracoscope

instrument used for visual examination of the thorax

148

thoracosscopy

visual examination of the thorax

149

capnometer

instrument used to measure carbon dioxide (levels in expired gas)

150

oximeter

instrument used to measure oxygen (saturation in the blood)

151

spirometer

instrument used to measure breathing (or lung volumes)

152

polysomnography (PSG)

process of recording many tests during sleep
(performed to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea)

153

radiography

produces images of internal organs by using ionizing radiation

154

nuclear medicine

produces scans by using radioactive material

155

ultrasonography

produces scans by using high-frequency sound waves

156

computed tomography

produces scans of computerized images of body organs in sectional slices

157

magnetic resonance imaging

produces scans that give information about the bodys anatomy by placing the patient on a magnetic field

158

chest computed tomography (CT) scan

computerized images of the chest created in sections sliced from front to back
performed to diagnose tumors, abscesses, pleural effusion

159

chest radiograph (CXR)

radiographic image of the chest performed to evaluate the lungs and the heart (chest x-ray)

160

ventilation-perfusion scanning (VPS)

a nuclear medicine procedure performed to diagnose a pulmonary embolism and other disorders (lung scan)

161

acid-fast bacilli (SFB) smear

a test performed on septum to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli, which cause tuberculosis

162

arterial blood gases (ABGs)

a test performed on arterial blood to determine levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, other gases present

163

peak flow meter (PFM)

a portable instrument used to measure how fast air can be pushed out of the lung
used to help monitor asthma

164

pulmonary function tests (PFTs)

a group of tests performed to measure breathing and used to determine respiratory function

165

pulse oximetry

a noninvasive method of measuring oxygen in the blood by using a device that attaches to the fingertip

166

auscultation

the act of listening for sounds within the body through a stethoscope
used for diagnosing conditions of the lungs, pleura, heart, abdomen

167

percussion

the act of tapping of a body surface with the fingers to determine the density of the part beneath by the sound obtained

168

PPD (purified protein derivative)

a test performed on individuals who have recently been exposed to tuberculosis (TB skin test)

169

stethoscope

in instrument used to hear internal body sounds

170

acapnia

condition of absence (less than normal levels) of carbon dioxide (in the blood)

171

alveolar

pertaining to the alveolus

172

anoxia

condition of absence (deficiency) of oxygen

173

aphonia

condition of absence of voice

174

apnea

absence of breathing

175

bronchoalveolar

pertaining to the bronchi and alveoli

176

bronchospasm

spasmodic contraction in the bronchi

177

diaphragmatic

pertaining to the diaphragm (phrenic)

178

dysphonia

condition of difficult speaking (voice)

179

dyspnea

difficult breathing

180

endotracheal

pertaining to within the trachea

181

eupnea

normal breathing

182

hypercapnia

condition of excessive carbon dioxide (in the blood)

183

hypernea

excessive breathing

184

hypocapnia

condition of deficient carbon dioxide (in the blood)

185

hyponea

deficient breathing

186

hypoxemia

condition of deficient oxygen in the blood

187

hypoxia

condition of deficient oxygen (to the tissues)

188

intrapleural

pertaining to within the pleura (space between the two pleural membranes)

189

laryngeal

pertaining to the larynx

190

laryngospasm

spasmodic contraction of the larynx

191

mucoid

resembling mucus

192

mucous

pertaining to mucus

193

nasopharyngeal

pertaining to the nose and pharynx

194

orthopnea

able to breathe easier in a straight (upright) position

195

phrenalgia

pain in the diaphragm (diaphramalgia)

196

phrenospasm

spasm of the diaphragm

197

pulmonary

pertaining to the lungs

198

pulmonologist

a physician who studies and treats diseases of the lung

199

pulmonology

study of the lung

200

rhinorrhea

discharge from the nose

201

tachypnea

rapid breathing

202

thoracic

pertaining to the chest

203

airway

passageway by which air enters and leaves the lungs as well as mechanical device used to keep the air passageway unobstructed

204

asphyxia

deprivation of oxygen for tissue use
suffocation

205

aspirate

to withdraw fluid or suction fluid
also to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract

206

bronchoconstrictor

agent causing narrowing of the bronchi

207

bronchodilator

agent causing the bronchi to widen

208

cough

sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs

209

hiccup

sudden catching of breath with a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm

210

hyperventilation

ventilation of the lungs beyond normal body needs

211

hypoventilation

ventilation of the lungs that doesn't fulfill the bodys gas exchange needs

212

mucopurulent

containing both mucus and pus

213

mucus

slimy fluid secreted by mucus membranes

214

nebulizer

device that creates a mist to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment

215

nosocomial infection

an infection acquired during hospitalization

216

paroxysm

periodic, sudden attack

217

patent

open, allowing passage of air

218

sputum

mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea expelled through the mouth

219

ventilator

mechanical device used to assist with or substitute for breathing

220

ABGs

arterial blood gases

221

AFB

acid-fast bacilli

222

ARDS

acute respiratory distress syndrome

223

CF

cystic fibrosis

224

CO2

carbon dioxide

225

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder

226

CT

computed tomography

227

CXR

chest radiograph

228

flu

influenza

229

LLL

left lower lobe

230

LTB

laryngotracheobronchitis

231

LUL

left upper lobe

232

O2

oxygen

233

OSA

obstructive sleep apnea

234

PE

pulmonary embolism

235

PFM

peak flow meter

236

PFTs

pulmonary function tests

237

PSG

polysomnography

238

RLL

right lower lobe

239

RML

right middle lobe

240

RUL

right upper lobe

241

SOB

shortness of breath

242

TB

tuberculosis

243

URI

upper respiratory infection

244

VPS

ventilation-perfusion scanning