chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 4 Deck (166):
1

epidermis

outer layer of skin

2

keratin

Horny, cornified, layer composed of protein
Contained in hair, skin, nails
Gives skin waterproof quality, keeping moisture both in and out

3

melanin

color, pigmentation of the skin

4

dermis

inner layer of skin (true skin)

5

sudoriferous (sweat) glands

tiny, coiled, tubular structures that emerge through pores on the skins surface & secrete sweat

6

sebaceous glands

secrete sebum (oil) into the hair follicles where the hair shafts pass through the dermis

7

hair

compressed, keratinized cells that arise from hair follicles, the sacs that enclose the hair fibers

8

nails

Originate in the epidermis
Found on the upper surface of the ends of the fingers and toes
White area at the base is lunula, moon

9

cutane/o, derm/o, dermat/o

skin

10

hidr/o

sweat

11

kerat/o

horny tissue, hard

12

onych/o, unug/o

nail

13

seb/o

sebum (oil)

14

trich/o

hair

15

aut/o

self

16

heter/o

other

17

bi/o

life

18

necr/o

death (cells, body)

19

coni/o

dust

20

crypt/o

hidden

21

myc/o

fungus

22

pachy/o

thick

23

rhytid/o

wrinkles

24

staphyl/o

grapelike clusters

25

xer/o

dry

26

epi-

on, upon, over

27

intra-

within

28

para-

beside, beyond, around, abnormal

29

per-

through

30

sub-

under, below

31

trans-

through, across, beyond

32

-a

*helps with flow

33

-coccus (pl. cocci)

berry shaped (form of bacterium)

34

-ectomy

excision or surgical removal

35

-ia

diseased or abnormal state, condition of

36

-itis

inflammation

37

-malacia

softening

38

-opsy

view of, viewing

39

-phagia

eating or swallowing

40

-plasty

surgical repair

41

-rrhea

flow, discharge

42

-tome

instrument used to cut

43

dermatitis

inflammation of the skin

44

dermatoconiosis

abnormal condition of the skin caused by dust

45

dermatofibroma

fibrous tumor of the skin

46

hidradenitis

inflammation of a sweat gland, heat rash

47

leiodermia

condition of smooth skin

48

leukoderma

white skin (white patches caused by depigmentation)

49

onychocryptosis

abnormal condition of a hidden nail (ingrown nail)

50

onychomalacia

softening of the nails

51

onychomycosis

abnormal condition of a fungus in the nails

52

onychophagia

eating the nails (nail biting)

53

pachyderma

thickening of the skin

54

paronychia

diseased state around the nail

55

seborrhea

discharge of sebum (excessive)

56

trichomycosis

abnormal condition of a fungus in the hair

57

xeroderma

dry skin (a mild form of a cutaneous disorder characterized by keratinization and noninflammatory scaling)

58

abrasion

scraping away of the skin by mechanical process or injury

59

abscess

localized collection of pus

60

acne

inflammatory disease of the skin involving the sebaceous glands and hair follicles

61

actinic keratosis

A precancerous skin condition of horny tissue that results fro excessive exposure to sunlight
May evolve into a squamous cell carcinoma

62

albinism

congenital heredity condition characterized by partial or total lack of pigment in the skin, hair, eyes

63

basal call carcinoma (BCC)

Epithelial tumor arising from the epidermis
Seldom metastasizes but invades local tissue
Common in individuals who have had excessive sun exposure

64

candidiasis

An infection of the skin, mouth, vagina caused by the yeast type fungus (candida albicans)
Candida normally present in the mucous membranes, overgrowth causes an infection
Esophageal candidiasis often seen with AIDS

65

carbuncle

skin infection composed of a cluster of boils caused by staphylococcal bacteria

66

cellulitis

inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by infection, leading to redness, swelling, fever

67

contusion

injury with no break in the skin, characterized by pain, swelling, discoloration

68

eczema

noninfectious, inflammatory skin disease characterized by redness, blisters, scabs, itching

69

fissure

slit or cracklike sore in the skin

70

furuncle

painful skin node caused by staphylococcal bacteria in a hair follicle (boil)

71

gangrene

death of tissue caused by loss of blood supply followed by bacterial invasion (form of necrosis)

72

herpes

Inflammatory skin disease caused by herpes virus characterized by small blisters in clusters
Many types exist
Herpes simplex: causes fever blisters
Herpes zoster: (shingles) characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow nerves inflamed by the virus

73

impetigo

superficial skin infection characterized by pustules and caused by either staphylococcal or streptococci

74

infection

The invasion of pathogens in the body tissue
May remain localized if the bodys defense mechanisms are effective
If infection persists, it may become acute, subacute, chronic
Systemic infection occurs when pathogen causing a local infection gains access to vascular or lymphatic system and becomes disseminated throughout the body

75

Kaposi sarcoma

a cancerous condition starting as purple or brown papules on the lower extremities that spreads through the skin to the lymph nodes and internal organs, seen with AIDS

76

laceration

torn, ragged-edged wound

77

lesion

Any visible change in tissue resulting from injury or disease
Includes: sores, wounds, ulcers, tumors

78

MRSA infection

Invasion of body tissue by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus, a strain of common bacteria that has developed resistance to penicillin and antibiotics
Can produce skin and soft tissue infections and sometimes bloodstream infections and pneumonia, which can be fatal if not treated
Common in hospitals and long term facilities but is emerging as an important infection in the general population

79

pediculosis

invasion into the skin and hair lice

80

psoriasis

chronic skin condition producing red lesions covered with silvery scales

81

rosacea

chronic disorder of the skin that protrudes erythema, papules, pustules, broken blood vessels, usually occurring on the central area of the face in people older than 30 (acne rosacea)

82

scabies

skin infection caused by the itch mite, characterized by papule eruptions that are caused by the female burrowing into the outer layer of the skin and laying eggs, accompanied by severe itching

83

scleroderma

a disease characterized by chronic hardening of the connective tissue of the skin and other body organs

84

squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCA)

A malignant growth that develops from scalelike epithelial tissue, significant potential for metastasis
Most frequent cause is chronic exposure to sunlight

85

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

a chronic inflammatory disease involving the skin, joints, kidneys, nervous system, autoimmune disease is characterized by periods of remission and exacerbations

86

tinea

Fungal infection of the skin, may infect keratin of the skin, hair, nails
Infections are classified by body regions
Tinea (ringworm)
Tinea pedis (athletes foot)

87

urticaria

an itching skin eruption composed of wheels of varying sizes and shapes, usually resolves in a sort period of time, causes include internal disease, physical stimuli, genetic disorders (hives)

88

vitiligo

white patches on he skin caused by the destruction of melanocytes associated with autoimmune disorders

89

biopsy

view of life (the removal of living tissue from the body to be viewed under microscope

90

dermatoautoplasty

surgical repair using ones own skin (autograft)

91

drematoheteroplasty

surgical repair using skin from others (allograft)

92

dermatome

instrument used to cut skin (in thin slices/skin grafts)

93

dermatoplasty

surgical repair of the skin

94

onychectomy

excision of a nail

95

rhytidectomy

excision of wrinkles (facelift)

96

rhytidoplasty

surgical repair of wrinkles

97

cauterization

destruction of tissue with a hot or cold instrument, elastic current, caustic substance (cautery)

98

cryosurgery

destruction of tissue by using extreme cold, often using liquid nitrogen

99

debridement

removal of contaminated or dead tissue and foreign matter from an open wound

100

dermabrasion

procedure to remove skin scars with abrasive material

101

excision

removal by cutting

102

incision

surgical cut or wound produced by a sharp instrument

103

incision & drainage (I&D)

surgical cut made to allow the free flow of withdrawal of fluids from a lesion, wound, cavity

104

laser surgery

procedure using an instrument that emits a high powered beam of light used to cut, burn, vaporize, destroy tissue

105

mohs surgery

technique od microscopically controlled serial excisions of skin cancers

106

suturing

to stitch edges of a wound surgically

107

dermatologist

a physician who studies and treats skin diseases

108

dermatology (derm)

study of skin (diagnosis and treatment of diseases)

109

epidermal

pertaining to upon the skin

110

erythroderma

red skin

111

hypodermic

pertaining to under the skin

112

intradermal (ID)

pertaining to within the skin

113

keratogenic

originating in horny tissue

114

necrosis

abnormal condition of death

115

percutaneous

pertaining to through the skin

116

staphylococcus (pl. staphylococci, staph)

berry shaped bacterium in grapelike clusters, may cause skin disease

117

streptococcus (pl. streptococci, strep)

berry shaped bacterium in twisted chains

118

subcutaneous (subcut)

pertaining to under the skin

119

transdermal (TD)

pertaining to through the skin

120

ungual

pertaining to the nail

121

xanthoderma

yellow skin (jaundice)

122

alopecia

loss of hair

123

bacteria (s. bacterium)

single celled microorganisms that reproduce by cell division and may cause infection by invading body tissue

124

cicatrix

scar

125

cyst

a closed sac containing fluid, semisolid material

126

cytomegalovirus (CMV)

a herpes type virus that usually causes disease when the immune system is compromised

127

diaphoresis

profuse sweating

128

ecchymosis (pl. ecchymoses)

escape of blood into the skin, causing a small, flat, purple, blue discoloration

129

edema

puffy, swelling of the tissue from the accumulation of fluid

130

erythema

redness

131

fungus (pl. fungi)

organism that feeds by absorbing organic molecules from its surroundings and may cause infection by invading body tissue

132

induration

abnormal hard spots

133

jaundice

condition characterized by a yellow tinge to the skin (xanthoderma)

134

keloid

overgrowth of scar tissue

135

leukoplakia

condition characterized by white spots or patches on mucous membrane, may be precancerous

136

macule

flat, colored spot on the skin (freckle)

137

nevus (pl. nevi)

Circumscribed malformation of the skin, usually brown, black, flesh colored
Present at birth (birthmark, mole)

138

nodule

small, knotlike mass that can be felt by touch (lipoma)

139

pallor

paleness

140

papule

small, solid skin elevation (skin tag)

141

petechial (pl. petechiae)

pinpoint skin hemorrhage

142

pressure ulcer (decub)

erosion of the skin caused by prolonged pressure, occurs in bedridden patients (decubitus ulcer, bed sore)

143

pruritus

severe itching

144

purpura

small hemorrhages in the skin, giving a purple-red discoloration, associated with blood disorders

145

pustule

elevation of skin containing pus

146

ulcer

erosion of the skin or mucous membrane

147

wheal

transitory, itchy elevation of the skin with a white center and a red surrounding area (individual hive)

148

vesicle

small elevation of epidermis containing fluid (shingles, blister)

149

verruca

circumscribed cutaneous elevation caused by a virus

150

virus

minute microorganism, smaller than bacterium, characterized by lack of independent metabolism and the ability to replicate only within a living host cell, may cause infection by invading body tissue

151

BBC

basal cell carcinoma

152

bx

biopsy

153

CMV

cytomegalovirus

154

CA-MRSA

community-associated MRSA infection

155

decub

pressure ulcer

156

derm

dermatology

157

HA-MRSA

healthcare-associated MRSA infection

158

I&D

incision & drainage

159

ID

intradermal

160

MRSA

methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

161

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

162

SqCCA

squamous cell carcinoma

163

staph

staphylococcus

164

strep

streptococcus

165

subcut

subcutaneous

166

TD

transdermal