chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

HS 205 > chapter 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 11 Deck (34)
Loading flashcards...
1

having too little body fat to maintain health

underweight

2

having a moderate amount of excess body fat

overweight

3

having an excess of body fat that adversely affects health

obesity

4

body weight exceeding 100% of normal

morbid obesity

5

ratio of a persons weight to height
estimation of body composition

body mass index

6

<18.5

underweight

7

18.5-24.9

normal

8

25.0-29.9

overweight

9

30-34.9

class I obese

10

35-39.9

class II obese

11

40+

class III obese

12

limitations of BMI
may be inacccurate in ppl with high ______
- athletes
pregnant
elderly
children

muscle mass

13

sends very low electrical current through body
______ tissue conducts better than lipids
-done w electrodes attached to feet, hands and to machine
hand held
limitations
-less accurate
influenced by fluctiations in body water including ____ intake and ______

bioelectrical imedance
watery lean
alcohol intake
menstrual cycle

14

involves taking a pinch of skin at 3-7 diff locations
thickness of skin and fat measured w caliper
limitations
-technician must be well trained
requires touching exposing skin
assumes fat under ____ to total body fat

skinfolds
proportoonal

15

uses very low level x rays to distinguish bone, lean, fat tissue
30 mins
limits
-expesnive
scan area is limited

DEXA

16

most accurate method
"dry" weight underwater residual volume
limitations
-involves water submersion
trained technician
specialized equipment
may not be accurate for extremely obese

underwater weighing

17

based on air displacement
must wear swimsuit + cap
limitations
may over estimate body fat in ____ ppl
expesnive
requires wearing swimsuit
requires being in enclosed space for long time

bod pod
black

18

upper body
increased risk for type __ diabetes heart disease, hypertension

apple shaped
2

19

lower body
no significant risk for diseases

pear shaped

20

energy expended to maintain basal or resting functions of body
varies widely
___ tissue increases your

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

21

factors that increass BMR

stress, fever illness

22

factors that decrease BMR

starvation or fasting

23

energy expended to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize and store food
__-__% of total expenditure
lowest for __ highest for ____

thermic effect of food (TEF)
5-10
fat
protein

24

15-35% of daily expenditure
highly variable
includes both non exercise thermogenesis and volitional physical activity
amount of energy depends on
more ____ groups used
intesnity
duration
body size

physical activity
muscle

25

1 pound of adipose tissue

3500 calories

26

45-65% of people have at least one copy of this gene
excessive food intake and diminished satiety

FTO gene (fat mass and obesity associated)

27

certain genes may cause ppl to be energetically thrifty
expend less energy than other ppl for the same activity
enhanced survival during times of _____
has not ben identified

thrifty gene
famine

28

each person weight stays within small range (___)
the body compensates for changes in energy balance by altering BMR and energt levels
changing your set point may change w long term diet and acivity changes

set point theory

29

physiological drive to eat

hunger

30

a psychological desire to eat, absence of hunger often

appetite

31

feeling of fullness

satiety

32

hormone made by adipose cells
signal satiety
causes reduced food intake, reduced weight, and decrease body fat

leptin

33

hormone made in stomach
stimmulates appetie and hunger
acts on _____

ghrelin
hypothalamus

34

hormone produced by GI
decreses appetite

peptide YY or PYY