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Flashcards in chapter 3 Deck (40)
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1

cells lining intestines

enterocytres

2

rise in blood glucose; produced by pancreas

insulin

3

fall in blood glucose; produced by pancreas

glucagon

4

hunger hormone; produced by stomach

ghrelin

5

response to food entry; produced by small intestine

CCK

6

suppresses hunger; long term; produced by adipose tissue

leptin

7

chemical and/or mechanical breakdown of foods into component molecules

digestion

8

food molecules taken in GI tract to circulation

absorption

9

break down of molecules (carbs, fat, protein)

metabolism

10

undigested portions of food & wastes removed from body

elimination

11

muscles that control the passage of material from one organ to the next

sphincters

12

hunger and appetite prepare GI tract

cephalic phase

13

an enzyme produced by the salivary glands and begins the chemical digestion of ____

salivary amylase
carbs

14

covers the opening to the trachea during swallowing

epiglottis

15

muscular tube through which food travels from the mouth

esophagus

16

muscular contractions moving food through the GI tract

peristalsis

17

separates the esophagus from the stomach
prevents the flow of food from the stomach back into the esophagus

gastroesophageal sphincter

18

to denature proteins and activate ____ from ______

hydrochloric acid
pepsin
pepsinogen

19

an enzyme to digest protein

pepsin

20

an enzyme to digest fat

gastric lipase

21

to protect stomach lining

mucus

22

semisolid product of mechanical and chemical digestion in the stomach

chyme

23

produces bile which emulsifies fats
removes wastes and toxins
store simple nutrients
receive nutrients from digestive tract and release into blood stream

liver

24

stores bile

gall bladder

25

produces many digestive enzymes
produces bicarbonate to neutralize chyme

pancreas

26

folds in the lining that trap nutrient molecules (main units of absorption) (has a ____ and a _____)

villi
blood vessel
lacteal

27

composed of microvilli

brush border

28

hydrochloric acid in the esophagus

heartburn

29

painful, persistant heartburn more than 2x a week

GERD

30

regions of the GI tract eroded by HCL and pepsin
in stomach or duodenum ___ plays key role

peptic ulcers
H. pylori

31

disorder that interferes w normal colon function

IBS
irratable bowel syndrome

32

particular food causes numerous unpleasant symptoms
immune system is not involved

food intolerance

33

lactase decrease after 2 years

lactose intolerance

34

autoimmune disease
destruction of the villi of small intestine
complete intolerance for ___

celiac disease
gluten

35

stimulates stomach contractions

gastrin

36

storage in the stomach ___ hours

2-4

37

most absorption of nutrients occurs in the three sections of the small intestine
___, ____, ___
release of chyme into small intestine releases ____

duedenum jejunum ileum
CCK

38

absorption in small intestine
water soluble nutrients (carbs, protein, minerals an dsome vitamins) enter the _____ - which transports these nutrients to liver

fat soluble nutrients (lipids and some vitamins) enter the ______ (lacteal) - which transport thse nutrients to blood stream

portal vein
lymphatic vessels

39

elimination: large intestine
undigested food components move through a sphincter called the _____ to the large intestine
very little digestion takes place
material is stored ____ hours prior to elimination
water and some nutrients are absorbed

ileocecal valve
12-24 hours

40

undigested products:
___, ___, ____

fiber, water, bacteria