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Flashcards in chapter 7 Deck (45)
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1

substances composed of freely moving molecules
______ of a healthy adults body weight

fluid

2

between cells within tissues and organs

tissue/interstitial fluid

3

found in blood and lymphatic vessels
the fluid portion of blood that carries the blood cells

intravascular fluid

4

body fluid varies by:
tissue type - ___tissue and therefore more body fluid
gender - ____ have more lean tissue - more body fluid
_____ - lean tissue is lot with age and body fluid is lost with it

lean
male
age

5

functions of fluids
increased blood volume can cause blood pressure to ______
increases risks for heart disease and stroke
decreased blood volume can cause ___ blood presuure

rise
low

6

water has high _______
high amount of en energy to raise temp --> body temp remains stable
takes prolonged heat to exposure to increase body temp

high heat capacity

7

water is primary ______
as temp increases, blood flow increases to vessels lying under skin

coolant

8

functions of fluids
protect and lubricate body tissue
_______ - brain and spinal cord
______ - fetus
_______ - joints
________ - easy passage of material
_____ - prevents friction when lungs expand

cerebrospinal fluid
amniotic fluid
synovial fluid
digestive secretions
pleural fluid

9

substance dissolves into ions; can carry electrical current

electrolytes

10

K+ and HPO42–

intracellular fluid

11

Na+ and Cl–

extracellular fluid

12

increased concentration of electrolytes in extra cellular fluid
intracellular fluid is drawn out of cells
can lead to ______ or death

low body fluid
irregular heart beat

13

thirst mechanism

3 main mechanisms
increased concentration of ____ and other solutes in blood
reduction in blood ______ and ______
dryness in the ____ of mouth and throat

salt
volume, pressure
tissues

14

thirst mechanism
hypothalamus releases _______ hormone --> signal kidney to reduce urine flow
kidney releases
___ --> signal blood vessels to constrict
water drawn ouut of salivary glands
helps body retain water and avoid dehydration

antidiruetic hormolne
renin

15

most water enters body through _______ (_____)
some foods have high water content

beverages (70-80%)

16

sensible water loss
the ______ control how much water is reabsorbed
excess water excreted as _____
sensible water loss also via _______

kidneys
urine
sweat

17

insensible water (

lungs
respiration
feces

18

DRI for water
men _____ (____ as beverages)
women _____ (____ as beverages)

3.7L, 3.0L
2.7L, 2.2L

19

high in calcium
water softeners exchange calcium to _____

hard water
sodium

20

either from surface water or groundwater
regulated by _____
commonly treated by ____

tap water
EPA
chlorine

21

regulated by FDA
may be treated or filtered differently
may taste better but does not necessarily offer any health benefits
may be high in ______

bottled
sodium

22

low fat versions rich in protein, calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus

milk substitutes

23

what if you consume too much sodium?
increased risk for high _________
may cause _______ loss in urine
___________ - abnormally high blood sodium concentration
is this due to high sodium intake?

blood pressure
calcium
hypernatremia
no

24

what if you dont consume enough sodium?
__________
endurance athletes who consume too much _______ and fail to replace sodium

hyponatremia

25

functions of sodium
exchanged with ________
_____ balance
_____ pressure
______ balance
________ transmission
_______ contraction

potassium
fluid
blood
pH
nerve impulse
muscle

26

recommended sodium intake

less than 2.3 g/day

27

high _______ ----> lower blood pressure

potassium

28

recommended potassium intake

4.7 g/day

29

processed food is ____ in potassium
fresh fruit, veggies, whole grains

low

30

too much potassium?
kidney disease ----> ________ - high blood potassium level
can alter normal ______ rhythm, resulting in a heart attack
most ___ substitutes are high in potssium

hyperkalemia
heart
salt