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1

produced by plants through photosynthesis
principle form of carbohydrate in blood

glucose

2

contain only 1 or 2 molecules

simple carbs

3

glucose, fructose, galactose

monosaccharides

4

lactose, maltose, sucrose

disaccharides

5

contain many molecules
starch, glycogen, fiber

complex carbs

6

most abundant in our diet; good energy source; primary carb in blood; main source of energy

glucose

7

sweetest natural sugar; found in fruit; high corn syrup

fructose

8

does not occur alone in foods; binds with glucose to form lactose

galactose

9

produced during complex carb digestion
molecules join

maltose
glucose + glucose

10

found in sugar cane, sugar beets, honey

sucrose
glucose + fructose

11

plant storage of glucose

starch

12

storage form of glucose in animals + humans
stored in liver + muscles

glycogen

13

the non digestible skeleton of plants

dietary fiber

14

nondigestible carbohydrate, known health effects, extracted from plants or manufactured and added to foods

functional fiber

15

dissolves in water
fermented by bacteria in colon
found in citrus fruits, berries, oats, and beans
reduces risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes

soluble fiber

16

do not dissolve in water
not fermented by bacteria
found in whole grains
promote regular bowel movements

insoluble fibers

17

production of ketones due to high amount of fat metabolism
fasting, low carb intake, vigorous exercise

ketosis

18

enzyme produced in the salivary glands and secreted into the mouth
begins breakdown of starch into ____ and into ______
stops when food reaches ____

salivary amylase
maltose
shorter polysaccharides
stomach

19

enzyme produced in the pancreas and secreted into small intestine
enzymatically digests starch to ____

pancreatic amylase
maltose

20

a hormone secreted by the pancreas - ___ cells
when blood glucose is elevated: helps transport glucose into cells
stimulates the liver and muscles to take up glucose and convert it to _______

insulin
beta
glycogen

21

hormone secreted by pancreas - ____
when blood glucose drops
stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in liver to glucose to make glucose available to cells of the body
stimulates ______ - the production of new glucose from amino acids (proteins)

glucagon
alpha
gluconeogenesis

22

a measure of a foods ability to raise glucose levels

glycemic index

23

outer covering
high in fiber vitamins and minerals

bran

24

base of kernel
healthful fat, some vitamins

germ

25

midsection
starchy

endosperm

26

contain __ kcal energy per gram
sucrose, fructose, honey, brown sugar

nutritive sweetners
4

27

minnitol, sorbitol, isomalt, xylitol
contain ___ kcal energy per gram

sugar alcohols
2-3 kcal

28

saccharin, aspartame, sucralose
provide little to no energy

non-nutritive (alternative) sweetners

29

amount someone could eat every day for lifetime without adverse effects

acceptable daily intake

30

4cal gram but very sweet; cannot be used in cooking/heat; cannot by consumed by PKU

aspartame

31

7th leading cause of death
body cannot regulate blood glucose levels; too high

diabetes

32

occurs during pregnancy

gestational diabetes

33

increased or frequent urination
excessive thirst
constant hunger
extreme fatigue
blurred vision

type 1 diabetes

34

any of the type 1 signs + symptoms
greater frequency of infections
sudden vision changes
slow wounds/sore healing
very dry skin
nerve damange - tingling/numbness

type 2 diabetes

35

cannot produce insulin
accounts for about 5% of all cases
_____ - attacks pancreatic beta cells
blood sugar (____) rises
has genetic link
key intial warning sign is frequent urination

type 1 diabetes
autoimmune disease
glucose

36

90-95% of diabetes cases
____ is most common trigger
process:
develops progressively over time
body cells become insensitive or unresponsive to ____
impaired fasting glucose/pre-diabetes
pancreas stops producing insulin

type 2 diabetes
insulin

37

additional enzymes secreted by cells that line the small intestine (mucosal cells) digest disaccharides to monosaccharides
maltase: ____, sucrase: ____, lactase: ____
monoscaccharides are absorbed into the cells lining the small intestine and then enter the ____

maltose
sucrose
lactose
bloodstream

38

digestion of carbs
once absorbed into blood stream:
____ provides immediate energy
fructose and galactose are converted to glucose by the ____
excess glucose is converted to ____ and stored in liver and muscles (______)

glucose
liver
glycogen
glycogenesis

39

shaky, irritable, weak, diffuclty conenctrating
low blood glucose
diagnosis: ______ triad

hypoglycemia
whipples triad

40

AI for women for fiber

25 g

41

AI for men for fiber

38 g

42

nutrients are added back to product

enriched

43

nutrients never in product to begin with

fortified

44

who is at risk for type 2 diabetes?
-obesity
genetics
physical inactivity
high waist circumference: __ in women, __ in men
high blood pressure
high blood lipids---> high ____, low ____
high glucose

>35
>40
triglycerides
HDL