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Flashcards in chapter 10 notecards Deck (15)
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1

required for proper metabolism
do not directly provide enrgy
are necessary for obtaining energy from macronutrients
often function as coenzymes

vitamins and minerals

2

a protein that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction

enzyme

3

B vitamins
important for energy metabolism

thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin b12, folate, vitamin b6

4

assist with nutrient transport and hormone production
____ - glucose transport into cells
___ - thyroid hormone synsthesis

micronutrients
chromium, iodine

5

first B vitamin to be discovered
intro of ___ grains
containeed within ___ of grains
deficiency resulted in _____
symptoms: fatigue, apathy, wweakness, impaired cog function
long term: muscle wasting, nerve damage, paralysis, heart failure
roles:
TPP coenzyme reqired for ____ metabolism (energy)
producing ___ and ___
making neurotransmitters

thiamin (vitamin b1)
refined
bran
beri beri
carb
DNA, RNA

6

part of coenzymes involved in oxidation reduction reactions
metabolism of ____ and ___
part of antioxidant enezyme
imporant in metabolism of folic acid, b6, k, niacin
___ is a good source
easily destroyed by _____ - stored in opaque containers
deficiency:
involved in somany reactions
_____ - riboflavin deficiency that causes sore throat and swollen mucous membranes
fatigue weakness, dry scaly lips, ulcers of mucous membranes in mouth etc

riboflavin (b2)
carbs, fat
milk
light
ariboflavinosis

7

coenzyme in metabolism of carbs and fatty acids
DNA replication and repair
cell differentation
can be made from _____
no deficiency in ppl whog et inough protein
toxicity can result from supplements
_____ - severe niacin deficiency
4 D's:
begins w sores in the mouth, red raw skin
then digestive
seen in populations w ___ based diets

niacin
tryptophan
pellagra
dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death
corn

8

group of six related compounds
part of a coenzyme for more than 100 enzymes
amino acid metabolism
____ metabolism

vitamin b6

9

adding one carbon unit to things
DNA synthesis
tissue maintenence and repair
critical for _____ of very early embryos
amino acid metabolsm
RBC synthesis
todicity can mask ____ deficency
folate deficiciency
required for cell divisions and proper formation of ______ (develops into brain and spinal cord)
deficiency in early pregnancy --> ________
______: caused by severe folate deficiency, result sin enlarged ___ carrying insufficient hemoglobin

folate
cell division
b12
neural tube
neural tube defects
macrocytic anemia
RBC

10

amino acid
metabolism > ____ which causes greater risk of CVD
folate and b12 convert this to ____

methionine
metabolism
homocysteine
cysteine

11

required for homocysteine breakdown
activating folate
part of coenzymes for blood formation
required for _____ mainting the myelin sheath
absorption requires
stomach acid - separates b12 from proteins so we can absorb it
___ - proteins secreted by stomach acids in b12 absoprtion in small intestine
may be low in ____
deficiency:
can be due to insufficient intake (___ diet)
lack of intrinsic factor
______:

b12
intrinsic factor
elderly
vegan
pernicious anemia

12

the only fluid tissue in the body
transport of oxygen and nutrients to cells
removal of waste products
components:
_____: RBCS
transport oxygen through body
____: WBCs of immune system
____: cell fragments that assist in blood clotting
____: fluid portion of blood

blood
erthryocytes
leukocytes
platelets
plasma

13

coenzyme for the synthesis of proteins
good sources: green leafy veggies, soybean and canola oils
made by ______
deficiencies can result from diseases that disturb absorption of fats, long term intake
delated or failure of blood to clot

vitamin K
intestinal bacteria

14

trace mineral
part of hemoglobin - carries ____
part of myoglobin - carries oxygen to ____ cells
ability to easily bind w oxygen through transfer of electrons
additional functions
____ production
antioxidant systems
neuromucular functioning
RDA:
__ for men
___ for women
stored as ____ and ____
storage is usually in the ___ bone marrow mucosa and spleen
liver and spleen can ____ iron

iron
oxygen
muscle
energy
8
18
liver
recycle

15

two types of iron in foods
____: animal foods and is more absorbable
_____: less easily absorbed found in both plant and animal foods
impairs ____, ppolyphenols, calcium
enhances: ___, ___, ____
toxicity:
from _____ is most common cause of poisioning deaths
________: genetic disorder, excessive iron absorption
deficiency:
most common in the world
______: results in small RBCs that do not carry enough hemoglobin, referred to as ____ anemia

heme iron
non heme
phytates
MFP
vitamin C
stomach acid
iron deficient anemia
microcytic