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Flashcards in chapter 5 notecards Deck (54)
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1

three fatty acid molecules
acid group at one end
methyl group at the other end
one glycerol molecule
most common lipid

triglycerides

2

fatty acid length determines method of ______ and _______

absorption and transport

3

hydrogen atoms at every position; no double bonds

saturated fatty acids

4

lack of hydrogen atoms in one region; double bond

monounsaturated

5

lack hydrogen atoms in multiple locations; 2+ double bonds

polyunsaturated

6

lack of hydrogen atoms in one region; double bond

monounsaturated

7

lack of hydrogen atoms in multiple locations; 2+ double bonds

polyunsaturated

8

add hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fatty acids
converts liquid fats into ____
-create margarine from plant oil
often creates ____ fatty foods
listen on food label as partially hydrogenated oil

hydrogenation
semisolds
trans

9

harmful to health
lower ___ and raise ___

saturated and trans fats
HDL, LDL

10

linoleic and alpha linolenic acid
cannot be synthesized in the body and must be obtained in the diet
precursors to ____, which regulate cell functions

essential fatty acids
eicosanoids

11

(omega-6 fatty acid)
Double bond 6 carbons from the omega end
Found in ____ and ____oils (corn oil safflower oil and peanut oil)
Converted to ______ acid, which is involved in blood clotting and blood pressure
Cell membrane structure
Required for fat transport

linoleic acid
vegetable, nut
arachidonic

12

acid (omega-3 fatty acid)
Double bond 3 carbon from the omega end
Found in _____: dark green, leafy vegetables, flax; soy; walnuts; canola oil
Two omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, fish oil, and algae are EPA and DHA
Short chain ALA converted to ____ and ____ important regulators of inflammation, blood clotting, and blood pressure

alpha-linolenic acid
vegetables
EPA, DHA

13

Composed of
Glycerol backbone
___ fatty acids
Phosphate
____ in water
Important components of cell membranes - regulate the transport of substance into and out of the cell
____ used by liver to make bile
Can be made In our body, not essential

phospholipids
two
soluble
lecithin

14

lipids containing multiple rings of carbon atoms
Necessary components of cell membranes and many hormones
Can be found in plant and animal foods
____ based sterol appear to block the absorption of dietery cholesterol
____ is major sterol in the body
Also manufactured in our bodies (Liver)

sterols
plant
cholesterol

15

Necessary for human health
Required to build and maintain membranes
Plentiful in the neural cells that make up brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Intracellular transport, cell signaling, and nerve conduction
Used in synthesis of important compounds
Sex hormones (estrogen, androgen, and progesterone)
Bile acids
Adrenal hormones
Vitamin D

cholesterol

16

a lipoprotein produced by cells lining the SI
Composed of triglycerides surrounded by _____ and ____
Soluble in water
Travel through the lymphatic system
Are transferred to the bloodstream and enter cells
arrives at body cell
_____ lipase breaks down triglycerides in chylomicron
free fatty acids enter cells such as ____ or ___
____ travels to liver or kidney
chylomicron remnant travel to ____
fatty acids newly delivered to cells can be
-used immediately for ___
-used to make lipid containing compounds
-stroed as _____ in adipose and muscles

chylomicron
proteins
lipoprotein
adipose
muscle
glycerol
energy
triglycerides

17

level of saturation of triglycerides
short (__)
medium___
long____

<6
6-12
13+

18

unsaturated region arranged in different regions
___: hydrogens on same side of carbon chain
____: hydrogens on opposite side of chian
-straight rigid structure similar to _____ fatty acids
-small amount naturally occur in foods
-most result from _________

cis
trans
hydrogenation

19

vitamins A, D, E, K
protects the body
pads our body and organs and acts as a cushion to ____
insulation to help us retain body heat

the role of fat
fat soluble vitamins

20

1. salivary glands in the mouth produce an enzyme _______ that digests some triglycerids, little lipid digestion occurs here

lingual lipase

21

2. most fat arrives intact at the stomach, where it is mixed and broken down into _____

droplets

22

3. produces bile which is stored in gallbladder

liver

23

4. gallbladder contracts due to secretion ___ and ___ from the duodenal mucosal cells

cck, secretin

24

produce lipid digesting enzymes like _____ lipase which are released into small intestine

pancreas
pancreatic

25

bile from gallbladder breaks fat into smaller ____
lipid digesting enzymes from the pancrease break triglycerides into ______ and ___ acids
lipid digesting enzymes from the pancreas break dietyary cholesterol esters and phosophlipids into their components
products of fat digestion combine with _____ to form ____
____ transport lipids into _____
within enterocytes, components from micelles reform _____ and are repackaged as _____ for transport into lymphatic system absorbed directly into blood stream

small intestine
droplets
monoglycerides, fatty
bile salts, micelles
micelles, enterocytes
triglycerides
chylomicrons

26

AMDR for fat
-increase risk for obesity and CVD
also very low fat and high ___ diet also increases CVD
may be deficient in ___

20%-35%
carb
EFA

27

those we can see in foods
dressing, butter, cream mayo

visible fats

28

those added to processed or prepared foods to improve texture or taste
baked goods, dairy products, frozen entrees

hidden fats

29

less than 0.5 g fat

fat free

30

3g less of fat

low fat