chapter 6 notecards Flashcards Preview

HS 205 > chapter 6 notecards > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 6 notecards Deck (43)
Loading flashcards...
1

total amino acids

20

2

total essential amino acids
cannot be made by the body

9

3

nonessential amino acids
can be made by the body

11

4

conditonally essential
nonessential becomes essential

7

5

transfer amine group from one amino acid to another amino acid to make a new non-essential amino acid

transamination

6

amino acids are connected by _______

peptide bonds

7

sequential order of amino acids (order in which they appear in the protein)

primary structure

8

twist or folding (ribbon-like curling)

secondary structure

9

Further folding; 3D shape (globule) (when the ribbons curl back on each other)

tertiary structure

10

interaction of 2+ chains (multiple protein globules that have to come together for the proteins to perform their specific function)

quaternary structure

11

removal of amine group
occurs in ________
creates _______
liver converts to ____
this then travels to _______
remaining C,H,O

deamination
liver
ammonia
urea
kidney

12

chemical compounds that speed up chemical reactions

enzymes

13

chemical messengers in the body (created in one part of the body and travel to distant sites in the body to perform their action)

hormones

14

transmit messages from nerve cell to nerve cell (chemical messengers particularly in our nervous system that help to communicate our nerve impulses from neuron to neuron)

neurotransmitters

15

shuttle electrolytes across cell membranes

transport proteins

16

– blood is too acidic (excessive hydrogen)

acidosis

17

blood is too basic (low hydrogen)

alkalosis


18

a substance that our body recognizes as “foreign” (ex. Bacteria, virus, toxins, allergens)
triggers an immune response

antigens

19

special proteins in immune system that defend against disease
Specific to antigen
Attack and destroy substance

antibodies

20

molecular “memory” of the body to produce antibodies if presented with substance again

immunity

21

copy genetic information in DNA onto mRNA (in cell nucleus) (so the message can be carried out to the cytoplasm which is where protein creation occurs)

transcription

22

mRNA translated to amino acid sequence-protein (at ribosomes in cytoplasm)

translation

23

protein synthesis
______ leaves nucleus and travels to _____
binds to ribosome via ______
mRNA message requires specific amino acid sequence
____ binds to its specific amino acid
and carries amino acid to _______
amino acid is added to growing chain
______ returns to find another of its specific amino acids from the amino acid pool
at completion, protein is released from _____

mRNA
cytoplasm
rRNA
tRNA
mRNA/ribosome complex
tRNA
ribosome

24

contains sufficient amounts of all 9 essential amino acids
primarily ____ based foods

complete protein
animal

25

does not contain all 9 essential amino acids in sufficient quantities
primarily _____ based foods

incomplete
plant

26

combine 2 incomplete proteins to make a complete protein

mutual supplementation

27

2 protein sources that together supply all nine essential amino acids (resulting food)
Example: beans and rice

complementary supplementation

28

_____ grams of protein per kilogram of body weight (should be consumed daily; same for males and females)
_____% of total energy intake should be from protein

0.8
10-35%

29

nitrogen consumption > nitrogen excretion
Need for periods of growth, pregnancy, recovery from illness, or protein deficiency

positive nitrogen balance

30

nitrogen consumption < nitrogen excretion
Results from starvation, consumption of very-low-energy diets, severe illness, infections, serious burns, or injuries
**Someone that is really currently severely ill.

negative nitrogen balance