chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

HS 205 > chapter 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 8 Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...
1

antioxidants

vitamins C,E,A
beta carotene
selenium

2

a highly unstable atom with an unpaired electron
Highly reactive and can cause damage to molecules in the cell

free radical

3

Unstable free radicals try to steal electrons from surrounding molecules, causing damage to:
______ & _______
disrupts transport in and out of cells
alters _____ function
inflammation and blood clots --> _____
genetic material
faulty protein synthesis
cell mutation and cell death

LDLs & cell protein
cell
CVD

4

antioxidants function in diff ways:
some vitamins donate their electrons to:
convert ______ to less harmful substances
break down ____ free radicals
______ Stabilize free radicals

free radicals
oxidized
phytochemicals

5

fat soluble vitamin: 2 forms
______ -
______ - 4 biologically active forms (alpha, beta, gamma, delta)
___ most common

vitamin E
tocotrienol
tocopherol
alpha

6

primary role of vitamin E =
serves as an ________(donates electron)
stored in _______ and ______:
protects PUFAs and cell membranes from _______
protects ______ and lung tissue
protects ____
decreases ____ disease risk
fetal and early childhood development of nerves and muscles
enhances immune system
sources: vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, wheat germ, soybeans, oil based spreads, and dressings
____ sources are poor
destroyed by _____ and ____

antioxidant
adipose tissue
cell membranes
oxidation
RBCs
LDLs
heart
animal
oxygen, heat

7

water soluble vitamin
_____ acid
essential - must be consumed in human diet
antioxidant
Extracellular fluid, donates _____
Protects LDL cholesterol from ______– decrease CVD risk
_____ – imp. For smokers
WBC - immune system
Synthesis of ______ (scurvy), DNA, bile, neurotransmitters, hormones
Enhances the absorption of ___ ** exam

vitamin C
ascorbic
electron
oxidation
lungs
collagen
iron

8

smokers need an extra ____ mg/day of vitamin C

sources: citrus and more fruit and veggies, fortified beverages and cereal
destroyed by ____ and ____
especially _____
steam, microwave, stir fry

35
heat, oxygen
boiling

9

not enough vitamin C?
____ : bleeding gums, lose teeth, wounds that do not heal, swollen ankles, blah bah
role in production of collagen

scurvy

10

In the class of chemicals called carotenoids – fat-soluble plant pigment found in orange, red, deep yellow fruits and vegetables
_____: inactive form of a vitamin that the body can convert to active form
the precursor of _____

beta carotene\
provitamin
retionol (vitamin A)

11

too much vitamin E?
can interfere w _____ meds (aspirin and coumadin)
may increase risk for ______ stroke
not enough vitamin E?
uncommon, stored in _____ tissue
can result in fragile _____ (erythrocite hemolysis)
____ and associated symptoms

anticoagulant
hemorrhagic
adipose
RBC
anemia

12

too much vitamin C?
megadoses (10x RDA or more) can cause nausea, diarrhea, nosebleeds and abdominal cramps
usually temporary - easily excred in ____
can cause ___ toxicity in people w hemochromatosis
can lead to _____ formation in people with kidney disease
-may act as a ____

urine
iron
kidney stone
prooxidant

13

functions of beta carotene
weak _____
___ soluble - prevents odixations of LDL and cell membranes
also enhance the immune system
protect skin from ___
protect ___ from damage
decrease ___ risk
sources:
tomatoes - _____
greens - ____
added for color
absorbed more from _____ foods

antioxidant
fat
UV
eyes
cancer
lycopene
lutein
lightly cooked

14

too much beta carotene?
large quantities do not appear to be toxic
___ may turn yellow/orange at high intakes(reversible)
no known deficiency

skin

15

fat soluble vitamin
excess is stored in the ___ (90%), adipose tissue, kidneys and lungs
three active forms of vitamin A
____: vision, sexual reproduction, bone health immune health
_____: vision, sex repro, bone health, immune health
______: cell differentiation, bone health, immune function
functions
- antioxidant, protecting LDL cholesterol
-essential to proper ____
-___________: the process by which cells mature and specialize
sperm production and fertilization
bone growth

lungs
retinol
retinal
retinoic acid
vision
cell differentation

16

too much vitamin A?
-highly toxic, especially from _____
birth defects, ______ abortion
fatigue, loss of appetite, blurred vision, hair loss, skin disorders, bone and joint pain etc
permanent ____ and ___ Damage
not enough vitamin A?
____ blindness in early stages
_______: irreversible blindness
due to lack of ___, hardening of cornea
immune + reproductive problems
growth failure

supplements
spontaneous
liver, eye
night
xerophalmia

17

trace mineral found in few amino acids
functions:
antioxidant
production of ____ a thyroid hormone (basal metabolism)
____: a compound needed for proper functioning of an enzyme
iron, copper, zinc, manganese are cofactors

selenium
thyroxine
cofactor

18

a group of related diseases characterized by cells growing out of control

cancer

19

cancer development

initiation
promotion
metastasize