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1

interactions between genes, environment, and diet
key theory: foods and environmental factors can _____ some genes on while turning off others

nutrigenomics
switch

2

diseases caused by nutritional deficinces or toxicities

pellagra scurvy
iron deficiency
mineral deficiency and toxicities

3

diseases with a strong nutritional component

type 2 diabetes, high BP, heart disease, obesity

4

disease in which nutrtion plays some role

osteoporosis
osteoarthritis
some forms of cancer

5

nutrition plays limited role in _________
_____ has a strong tie to nutrition

cancer
stroke

6

the chemicals in foods that are critical to human growth + function

nutrients

7

nutrients required in relatively large amounts
provide ________
nutrients they are in:

macronutrients
energy
carbs, fats and oils, proteins

8

nutrients required in smaller amounts
____ and ____
organic - contains ____ vs non organic

micronutrients
smaller
vitamins and minerals
carbon

9

energy is measured in ________ which is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 C

kilocalories

10

primary source of fuel for the body, especially for the brain
provides ___ kcal per gram
found in ____ (wheat, rice), ______, fruits, and _____

carbohydrates
4 kcal
grains
veggies
legumes

11

class of lipids - _______ in water
important stored energy source during rest or lower intensity exercise
source of _______ vitamins and essential _____
___ kcal per gram

fats
non-soluble
fat-soluble
fatty acids
9 kcal

12

chains of amino acids bonded by ____ bond
main role is to build ___ and ____, NOT provide energy
___ kcal per gram

proteins
cells
tissues
4

13

organic molecules that do not supply energy
____ - tissue building, immune system, vision
assistant in energy _____

vitamins
coenzyme
metabolism

14

fat soluble vitamins
toxiciity can occur from consuming excess amounts which accumulate in the body

A, D, E, K stored in the human body

15

_______ are not stored to any extent in human body
excess excreted in urine
toxicity generally only occurs as a result of vitamin supplementation

water soluble vitamins

16

inorganic substances required for body processes
not destroyed by heat and light
examples: sodium, calcium, iron, potassium and magnesium
functions: ___ regulation, bone _____, muscle ____ and nerve functioning

minerals
fluid
structure
movement

17

amount of nutrient needed to prevent deficiency disease in healthy people
amount of a nutrient that may reduce the risk of chronic diseases
for healthy people only

DRI

18

average daily intake level of a nutrient that will meet the needs of 50% of healthy people
are used to determine the RDA of a nutrient

EAR
Estimated Average Requirement

19

the average daily intake level required to meet the needs of 97-98% healthy people

Recommended Dietary Allowance
RDA

20

interpreted the same as the RDA
recommended average daily intake for a nutrient
used when we have less scientific evidence

AI
adequate intake

21

highest average daily intake level that is not likely to have adverse effects on the health of most people
consumption above UL is not considered safe

tolerable upper intake level

22

average dietary energy intake (kcal) to maintain energy balance
based on age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity

estimated energy requirement (EER)

23

the precent range of total daily energy intake that should come from each macronutrient

acceptable macronutrient distribution range
AMDR

24

AMDR for carbs

45-65%

25

AMDR for fat

20-35%

26

AMDR for protein

10-35%

27

the set of genes belonging to microorganisms that inhibit the human body

human microbiome

28

foods having substances that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition

functional foods

29

contain microorganisms that improve the intestinal microbial balance; yogurt

probiotics

30

nondigestible ingredients that stimulate growth and/or activity of helpful bacteria; inulin

prebiotics