Chapter 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (41):
1

a specific heritable attribute or property of an organism

character

2

one of the forms of a genetic character

traits

3

alternative forms of characters

character differences

4

fertilization in which sperm nuclei in pollen fertilize egg cells of the same

self-fertilization

5

fertilization of one plant by a different plant

cross-fertilization/cross-pollination

6

individual that passes traits without change from one generation to the next

true-breeding

7

a genetic cross in which the 2 parents are switched with respect to which trait is associated with each sex

reciprocal cross

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the parental individuals used in an initial genetic cross

P generation

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first generation of offspring from a genetic cross

F1 generation

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second generation of offspring from a genetic cross produced by interbreeding F1 individual

F2 generation

11

one of 2 or more versions of a gene

alleles

12

the masking effect of one allele over another

dominance

13

mendel's principle that the pairs of alleles that control a character segregate as gametes are formed with half the gametes carrying one allele, and the other half carrying the other allele

principle of segregation

14

an individual with 2 copies of same allele

homozygote

15

state of possessing 2 copies of the same allele

homozygous

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an individual with 2 different alleles of a gene

heterozygote

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state of possessing 2 different alleles of a gene

heterozygous

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an F1 heterozygote produced from a genetic cross involves a single character

monohybrid

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a genetic cross between 2 individuals that are each heterozygous for the same pair of alleles

monohybrid cross

20

the genetic constitution of an organism in terms of its genes and alleles

genotype

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the observable or measurable characteristics of an organism that are produced by an interaction between the genotype and the environment

phenotype

22

the possibility that an outcome will occur if it is a mater of chance

probability

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mathematical rule in which the final probability is found by multiplying individual probabilities

product rule

24

mathematical rule in which final probability by summing individual probabilities

sum rule

25

method for determining the genotype and phenotype of offspring and their expected proportions by combining gametes and their probabilities of occurrence in a matrix table

punnett square

26

a genetic cross between an individual with the dominant phenotype and a homozygous recessive individual

testcross

27

a zygote produced from a cross that involves 2 characters

dihybrid

28

a cross between 2 individuals that are heterozygous for 2 pairs of alleles

dihybrid cross

29

Mendel's principle that the alleles of the genes that govern 2 characters assort independently during formation of gametes. mechanistically this is the case because any combination of chromosomes may be segregated to the spindle poles during meiosis I

independent assortment

30

Mendel's principle that the alleles of the genes that govern 2 characters assort independently during formation of gametes

Principle of Independent Assortment

31

the principle that genes and their alleles are carried on the chromosomes

chromosome theory of inheritance

32

the particular site on a chromosome at which a gene is located

locus

33

condition in which the effects of recessive alleles can be detected to some extent in heterozygotes

incomplete dominance

34

condition in which alleles have approximately equal effects in individuals making the alleles equally detectable in heterozygotes

codominance

35

more than 2 different alleles of a gene

multiple alleles

36

interaction of genes with one or more alleles of a gene at one locus inhibiting or masking the effects of one or more alleles of a gene at a different locus

epistasis

37

inheritance in which several to many different genes contribute to the same character

polygenic inheritance

38

a character that displays a continuous distribution of the phenotype involved typically resulting from several to many contributing genes

quantitative traits

39

the individual genes that contribute to a quantitative trait

quantitative trait loci

40

condition in which single genes affect more than one character of an organism

pleitropy

41

theory suggesting that hereditary traits blend evenly in offspring through mixing of the blood of 2 parents

blending theory of inheritance