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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (18):
1

a signaling molecule secreted by a cell that can alter the activities of any cell with receptors for it; in animals, typically a molecule produced by one tissue and transported via the bloodstream to another specific tissue to alter its physiological activity

hormone

2

in signal transduction, the binding of a signal molecule with a specific receptor in a target cell. in neutral signaling, the first of four components in which a stimulus is detected by specialized sensory receptors

reception

3

in cell signaling, the process of changing a signal into the form necessary to cause the cellular response. in prokaryotes, the process in which DNA is transferred from donor to recipient bacterial cells by an infecting bacteriophage

transduction

4

in signal transduction, the last stage in which the transduced signal causes the cell to change according to the signal and to the receptors on the cell. in neural signaling, the fourth and last component involving the action resulting from the integration of neural messages

response

5

enzyme that transfers a phosphate group from ATP to one or more sites on particular proteins

protein kinases

6

enzyme that removes phosphate groups from target proteins

protein phosphatases

7

an increase in the magnitude of each step as a signal transduction pathway proceeds

amplification

8

in signal transduction, a surface receptor with built-in protein kinase activity

receptor tyrosine kinases

9

in signal transduction, a surface receptor that responds to a signal by activating a G protein

G-protein-coupled receptor

10

the extracellular signal molecule in signal transduction pathways controlled by G-protein-coupled receptors

first messenger

11

in signal transduction, a plasma membrane- associated enzyme, activated by a G-protein, that generates one or more second messengers. in homeostatic feedback, the system that returns the condition to the set point if it has strayed away

effector

12

in particular signal transduction pathways, an internal, nonprotein signal molecule that directs or indirectly activates protein kinases, which elicit the cellular response

second messengers

13

in particular signal transduction pathways, a second messenger that activates protein kinases, which elicit the cellular response by adding phosphate groups to specific target proteins. function in one of 2 major G-protein-coupled receptor-response pathways

cyclic AMP

14

in particular signal transduction pathways, a second messenger that activates transport proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum to release Ca2+ into cytoplasm. it is involved in one of 2 major G-protein-coupled receptor-response pathways

inositol triphosphate(IP3)

15

in particular transduction pathways, a second messenger that activates protein kinases, which elicit the cellular response by adding phosphate groups to specific target proteins. it is involved in 1 of 2 major G-protein-coupled receptor-response pathways

diacylglycerol (DAG)

16

internal receptor that turns on specific genes when it is activated by binding a signal molecule

steroid hormone receptor

17

interaction by which cell signaling pathways communicate with one another to integrate their responses to cellular signals

cross-talk

18

the system of communication between cells throughout signaling pathways

cell signaling