Chapter 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (59):
1

a region of DNA that transcribes a single primary transcript

transcription unit

2

a cluster of prokaryotic genes organized into a single transcription unit and their associated regulatory sequences

operon

3

DNA sequence involved in the regulation of a gene or genes to which a regulatory protein binds to control the transcription of the gene or genes

regulatory sequences

4

a DNA regulatory sequence that controls transcription of an operon

operator

5

DNA-binding protein that binds to a regulatory sequence and affects the expression of an associated gene or genes

regulatory protein

6

a regulatory protein that prevents the operon genes from being expressed

repressor

7

a regulatory protein that controls the expression of 1 or more genes

activator

8

gene that encodes a protein that has a function other than gene regulation

structural gene

9

gene that encodes a protein that regulates the expression of a structural gene or genes

regulatory gene

10

concerning regulation of gene expression in bacteria, a molecule that turns on the transcription of the genes in an operon

inducer

11

operon whose expression is increased by an inducer molecule

inducible operon

12

key regulatory molecule involved in positive gene regulation of the lac operon

CAP (catabolite activator protein)

13

a regulatory protein that controls the expression of 1 or more

activator

14

region in the promoter of the lac operon and in the promoters of a large number of other operons that control the catabolism of many sugars to which activated catabolite activator protein (CAP) binds, thereby enabling RNA polymerase to bind and transcribe the operon's structural genes

CAP site

15

operon whose expression is prevented by a repressor molecule

repressible operon

16

in the regulation of gene expression in bacteria, a regulatory molecule that combines with a repressor to activate it an shut off an operon

corepressor

17

in eukaryotes the proteins required for RNA polymerase to initiate transcription or that regulate that process. one class of it recognizes and binds to the promoter in the area of the TATA box and then recruit RNA polymerase

transcription factor

18

upstream of a eukaryotic gene, a region containing regulatory sequences -promoter proximal elements- for transcription called promoter proximal elements

promoter proximal region

19

regulatory sequence within the promoter proximal region, a region upstream of the promoter of a eukaryotic proteincoding gene. regulatory proteins bind to promoter proximal elements and stimulate or inhibit the rate of transcription initiation

promoter proximal elements

20

in eukaryotes, a region at a significant distance from the beginning of some proteincoding genes that contain regulatory sequences to which regulatory proteins bind to stimulate or inhibit the rate of transcription initiation over and above that seen for regulatory events at the promoter proximal elements

enhancer

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in eukaryotes, a protein that binds to the promoter of a gene in the area of the TATA box and recruits and orients RNA polymerase II to initiate transcription at the correct place

general transcription factor

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combination of general transcription factors with RNA polymerase II

transcription initiation complex

23

a regulatory protein that controls the expression of 1 or more genes

activators

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a highly specialized region in a protein produced by the 3-dimensional arrangement of amino acid chains within and between domains

motifs

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in eukaryotes, a large multiprotein complex that bridges between activators at an enhancer and proteins at the promoter and promoter proximal region to stimulate transcription

coactivator

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in the regulation of gene expression in bacteria, a regulatory molecule that combines with a repressor to activate it and shut off an operon

corepressors

27

the combining of a few regulatory proteins in particular ways so that the transcription of a wide array of genes can be controlled and a large number of cell types can be specified

combinatorial gene regulation

28

a signaling molecule secreted by a cell that can alter the activities of any cell with receptors for it; in animals, typically a molecule produced by 1 tissue and transported via the bloodstream to another specific tissue to alter its physiological activity

hormone

29

a type of lipid derived from cholesterol

steriod

30

internal receptor that turns on specific genes when it is activated by binding a signal molecule

steroid hormone receptors

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the DNA sequence to which the hormone-receptor complex binds

steroid hormone response element

32

process in which a methyl group is added enzymatically to cytosine bases in the DNA

DNA methylation

33

phenomenon in which methylation of cytosines in eukaryotic promoters inhibits transcription and turns the genes off

silencing

34

phenomenon in which a change in gene expression does not involve a change in the DNA sequence of the gene or of the genome

epigenetics

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pattern of inheritance in which the expression of a nuclear gene is based on whether an individual organism inherits the gene from the male or female parent

genomic imprinting

36

regulatory mechanism for altering chromatin structure and therefore, gene activity, based on signals in histone tails represented by chemical modification patterns

histone code

37

phenomenon of silencing a gene posttranscriptionally by a small single-stranded RNA that is complementary to part of an mRNA

RNA interference (RNAi)

38

one of the major types of small regulatory RNAs in eukaryotes involved in RNA interference (RNAi)

microRNAs (miRNA)

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one of the major types of small, single-stranded regulatory RNAs in eukaryotes involved in RNA interference (RNAi)

small interfering RNA (siRNAs)

40

protein complex containing an miRNA that binds to sequences in the 3' UTRs of target mRNAs, resulting in either inhibition of translation of the mRNAs or their degradation

miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC)

41

one of the major types of small, single-stranded regulatory RNAs in eukaryotes involved in RNA interference (RNAi)

small interfering RNA (siRNA)

42

protein complex containing an siRNA that binds to a sequence in a target RNA resulting in cleavage of that RNA

siRNA-induced silencing complex (siRISC)

43

large cytoplasmic protein complex in eukaryotic cells that degrades ubiquitinylated proteins

proteasome

44

mechanism in which one group of cells (the inducer cells) causes or influences another nearby group of cells (the responder cells) to follow a particular developmental pathway

induction

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mechanism in which the developmental fate of a cell is set

determination

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having the capacity to produce cells that can develop into or generate a new organism or body part

totipotent

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process by which cells that have been committed to a particular developmental fate by the determination process now develop into specialized cell types with distinct structures and fuctions

differentiation

48

the mRNA and proteins stored in the egg cytoplasm that directs the early stages of animal development in the period before genes of the zygote become active

cytoplasmic determinants

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process by which cells that have been committed to a particular developmental fate by the determination process now develop into specialized cell types with distinct structures and functions

differentiation

50

arrangement of organs and body structures in their proper 3-dimensional relationships

pattern formation

51

stages of development from a fertilized egg to an embryo

embryogenesis

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one of a class of genes that regulate the expression by the mother during oogenesis and that control the polarity of the egg and therefore of the embryo

maternal-effect genes

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genes that work sequentially progressively subdividing the embryo into regions determining the segment of the embryo and the adult

segmentation genes

54

in Drosophila embryonic development, one of the first activated set segmentation genes that progressively subdivide the embryo into regions, determining the segments of the embryo and the adult. it subdivides the embryo along the anterior-posterior axis into broad regions that later develop into several distinct segments

gap genes

55

in Drosophila embryonic development, one of the second activated set of segmentation genes that progressively subdivide the embryo into regions, determining the segments of the embryo and the adult. control the division of the embryo into units of 2 segments each

pair-rule genes

56

in Drosophila embryonic development, one of the third activated set of segmentation genes that progressively subdivide the embryo into regions, determining the segments of the embryo and adult. set the boundaries and anterior-posterior axis of each segment in the embryo thereby determining the regions that become segments of larvae and adult

segment polarity genes

57

any of the family of genes that determines overall body plan during embryonic development

homeotic

58

unit containing the code for a protein molecule or one of its parts, or for functioning RNA molecules such as tRNA and rRNA

genes

59

the fundamental level of control of gene expression that determines which genes are transcribed into mRNA

transcriptional regulation