Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (25):
1

a haploid cell, an egg or sperm. haploid cells fuse during sexual reproduction to form a diploid zygote

gametes

2

division of diploid cells to haploid progeny consisting of 2 sequential rounds of nuclear and cellular division

meiosis

3

any of cells of an organism's body other than reproductive cells

somatic cells

4

the fusion of nuclei of an egg and sperm cell which initiates development of a new individual

fertilization

5

a fertilized egg

zygote

6

a specialized gamete-producing organ in which the germ cells collect. are the primary source of sex hormone in vertebrates: ovaries in females and testes in males

gonads

7

the male gonad. in male vertebrates, they secrete androgens and steroid hormones that stimulate and control the development and maintenance of male reproductive systems

testis

8

a haploid cell that develops into mature sperm cell when meiosis is complete

spermatozoa (sperm)

9

in animals, the female gonad,which produces female gametes and reproductive hormones. in flowering plants, the enlarged base of a carpel in which 1 or more ovules develop into seeds

ovaries

10

the formation of male and female gametes

gametogenesis

11

the chromosome derived from the male parent of an organism

paternal chromosome

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the chromosome derived from the female parent of an organism

maternal chromosome

13

1 of 2 or more versions of a gene

alleles

14

an organism or cell with only one copy of each type of chromosome in its nuclei

haploid

15

the first division of the meiotic cell cycle in which homologous chromosomes pair and undergo an exchange of chromosome segments, and then the homologous chromosomes separate, resulting in 2 cells each with the haploid number of chromosomes and with each chromosome still consisting of 2 chromatids

meiosis I

16

the second division of the meiotic cell cycle in which the sister chromatids in each of the 2 cells produced by meiosis I separate and segregate into different cells resulting in 4 cells each with the haploid number of chromosomes

meiosis II

17

a brief interphase separating the 2 meiotic division

interkinesis

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the failure of homologous pairs to separate during the first meiotic division or of chromatids to separate during the second meiotic division

nondisjunction

19

chromosomes that are different in male and female individuals of the same species

sex chromosomes

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chromosomes that contain nonparental combinations of alleles. in eukaryotes, they are generated by crossing-over in meiosis

recombinant chromosomes

21

the process by which the combinations of alleles for different genes in 2 parental individuals become shuffled into new combinations in offspring individuals

genetic recombination

22

nonparental combinations of alleles. in eukaryotes they results from crossing-over in meiosis

genetic recombinants

23

phenotype with a different combination of traits from those of the original parents

recombinants

24

mode of reproduction in which male and female parents produce offspring through the union of egg and sperm generated by meiosis

sexual reproduction

25

mendel's principle that the alleles of the genes that govern 2 characters assort independently during formation of gametes. mechanistically this is case because any combination of chromosomes may be segregated to the spindle poles during meiosis I

independent assortment