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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (38):
1

energy of motion

kinetic energy

2

stored energy

potential energy

3

the study of energy flow during chemical and physical reactions

thermodynamics

4

energy can be transformed from one form to another or transferred from one place to another, but it cannot be created or destroys. in any process that involves an energy change the total amount of energy in a system and its surroundings remains constant

first law of thermodynamics

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the total disorder of a system and its surroundings always increases

second law of thermodynamics

6

disorder

entropy

7

chemical or physical reaction that occur without outside help

spontaneous reaction

8

the potential energy in a system

enthalpy

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a reaction in which the products have less potential energy than the reactants; reaction that releases energy

exothermic

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a reaction in which the products have more potential ennergy than the reactants

endothermic

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the energy in a system that is available to do work

free energy

12

reaction that has a negative delta G because it releases free energy

exergonic reaction

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reaction that can proceed only if free energy is supplied

endergonic reaction

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a metabolic pathway in which energy is released by the breakdown of complex molecules to simpler compounds. an individual reaction is a catabolic reaction

catabolic pathway

15

cellular reaction that breaks down complex molecules such as sugar to make their energy available for cellular work

catabolic reaction

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a metabolic pathway in which energy is used to build complicated molecules form simpler ones; biosynthetic pathway; an individual reaction is an anabolic reaction; biosynthetic reaction

anabolic pathway

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metabolic reaction that requires energy to assemble simple substance into more complex molecules

anabolic reaction

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the process in living cells by which the hydrolysis of ATP is coupled to an endergonic reaction so that energy is not wasted as heat

energy coupling

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the addition of a phosphate group to a molecule

phosphorylation

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the continual hydrolysis and resynthesis of ATP in living cells

ATP/ADP cycle

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the initial input of energy required to start a reaction

activation energy

22

protein that accelerates the rate of a cellular reaction

enzymes

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the process of accelerating a chemical reaction with a catalyst

catalysis

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substance with the ability to accelerate a spontaneous reaction without being changed by the reaction

catalyst

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the particular reacting molecule or molecular group that an enzyme catalyzes

substrate

26

the ability of an enzyme to catalyze the reaction of only a single type of molecule or group of closely related molecules

enzyme specificity

27

the region of an enzyme to which substrate bind and where catalysis occurs

active site

28

an inorganic or organic nonprotein group that is necessary for catalysis to take place

cofactor

29

organic cofactors that include complex chemical groups of various kinds

coenzymes

30

inhibition of an enzyme reaction by an inhibitor molecule that resembles the normal substrate closely enough so that it fits into the active site of the enzyme

competitive inhibition

31

inhibition of an enzyme reaction by an inhibitor molecule that binds to the enzyme at a site other than the active site and, therefore, does not compete directly with the substrate for binding to the activesite

noncompetitive inhibition

32

specialized control mechanism for enzymes with an allosteric site, a regulatory site outside the active site, that may either slow or accelerate activity depending on the enzyme

allosteric regulation

33

a regulatory site outside the active site

allosteric site

34

molecule that converts an enzyme with an allosteric site, a regulatory site outside the active site, from the inactive form to the active form

allosteric activator

35

molecule that converts an enzyme with an allosteric site, a regulatory site outside the active site, from the active form to the inactive form

allosteric inhibitor

36

in enzyme reactions, regulation in which the product of a reaction acts as a regulator of the reaction

feedback inhibition/end-product inhibition

37

the RNA-based catalyst that is part of the biochemical machinery of all cells

ribozymes

38

the biochemical reactions that allow a cell or organism to extract energy from its surroundings and use that energy to maintain itself grow and reproduce

metabolism