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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (70):
1

molecule without carbon atoms in its structure

inorganic molecules

2

molecule consisting of carbon liked only to hydrogen aoms

hydrocarbons

3

the atoms in reactive groups

functional groups

4

group consisting of an oxygen atom link to a hydrogen atom on one side and to a carbon chain on the other side (-OH)

hydroxyl group

5

the reactive part of aldehydes and ketones, consisting of an oxygen atom like to a carbon atom by a double bond (>C=O)

carbonyl group

6

The characteristic functional group of organic acids, formed by the combination of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups (-COOH)

carboxyl group

7

group that acts as an organic base, consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded on one side to 2 hydrogen atoms and on the other side to a carbon chain (-NH2)

amino group

8

Group consisting of a central phosphorus atom help in 4 linkages: 2 that bind -OH groups to the central phosphorus atom, a third that binds an oxygen atom to the central phosphorus atom, and a fourth that links the phosphate group to an oxygen atom (-OPO3^2-)

phosphate group

9

group that works as a molecular fastener, consisting of a sulfur atom liked on one side to a hydrogen atom and on the other side to a carbon atom (-SH)

sulfhydryl group

10

2 or more molecules with the same chemical formula but different molecular structures

isomers

11

molecules that are mirror images of one another

stereoisomers

12

2 molecules with the same chemical formula but atoms that are arranged in different ways

structural isomers

13

reaction during which the components of a water molecule are removed, usually as part of the assembly of a larger molecule from smaller subunits

condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis reaction

14

reaction in which the components of a water molecule are added to functional groups as molecules are broken into smaller subunits

hydrolysis

15

a molecule assembled from subunit molecules called monomers into a chain by covalent bonds

polymer

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the process of assembly of a polymer from monomers(reactions are dehydration synthesis reactions)

polymerization

17

a storage polysaccharide in plants consisting of branched or unbranched chains of glucose subunits

starch

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energy-providing carbohydrates stored in animal cells

glycogen

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one of the primary constituents of plant cell walls, formed by chains of carbohydrate subunits

cellulose

20

the smallest carbohydrates containing 3 to 7 carbon atoms

monosaccharides

21

an enzyme that splits disaccharides (2 sugar molecules joined together) into individual monosaccharides (single sugar molecules)

disaccharide

22

chain with more than 10 linked monosaccharide subunits

polysaccharides

23

bond formed by the linkage of 2 alpha-glucose molecules with oxygen as a bridge between a carbon of the first glucose unit and a carbon of the second glucose unit

glycosidic bonds

24

a diverse group of water-insoluble, primarily nonpolar biological molecules composed mostly of hydrocarbons

lipids

25

energy-storing molecules consisting of a glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acid chains

neutral lipids

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neutral lipid that is liquid at biological temperatures

oils

27

neutral lipid that is semisolid at biological temperatures

fats

28

a nonpolar compound produced when a fatty acid binds by a dehydration synthesis reaction at each of glycerols 3--OH- bearing sites

triglyceride

29

one of 2 components of a neutral lipid, containing single hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group link at one end

fatty acid

30

a covalent bond formed between a carboxyl group and a hydroxyl group

ester linkage

31

fatty acid with only single bonds liking the carbon atoms

saturated

32

fatty acids with one double bond

monounsaturated

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fatty acids with more than one double bonds

polyunsaturated

34

a phosphate-containing lipid

phospholipids

35

a type of lipid derived form cholesterol

steriods

36

steroid with a single polar -OH group linked to one end of the ring framework and a complex, nonpolar hydrocarbon chain at the other end

sterols

37

the predominant sterol of animal cell membranes

cholesterol

38

a sterol that occurs in plant cell membranes

phytosterols

39

protein that accelerates the rate of cellular reaction

enzymes

40

a molecule that contains both an amino and a carboxyl group

amino acid

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a link formed by a dehydration synthesis reaction between the -NH2 group of one amino acid and the -COOH group of a second

peptide bond

42

The end of a polypeptide chain with an -NH3+ group

N-terminal end

43

the end of an amino acid chain with a -COO- group

C-terminal end

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the chain of amino acids formed by sequential peptide bonds

polypeptide

45

the sequence of amino acids in a protein

primary structure

46

regions of alpha helix, beta strand, or random coil in a polypeptide chain

secondary structure

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the overall three-dimensional folding of a polypeptide chain

tertiary structure

48

the arrangement of polypeptide chains in a protein that contains more than one chain

quaternary structure

49

a type of secondary structure of a polypeptide in which the amino acid chain is twisted into a regular, right-hand spiral

alpha helix

50

a type of primary structure in a polypeptide in which the amino acid chain zigzag in a flat plane to form a beta strand, and beta strands then align side by side in the same or opposite direction

beta sheet

51

the overall 3D shape of protein

conformation

52

a loss of both the structure and function of a protein due to extreme conditions that unfold it form its normal conformation

denaturation

53

the reformation of a denatured protein into its folded, functional state

renaturation

54

"guide" protein that binds temporarily with newly synthesized proteins, directing their conformation toward the correct tertiary structure and inhibiting incorrect arrangements as the new proteins fold

chaperone protein

55

alternation in the 3D shape of a protein

conformational change

56

in protein structure, a distinct, large structural subdivision produced in many proteins by the folding of the amino acid chains. in systematics, the highest taxonomic category; a group of cellular organisms with characteristics that set it apart as a major branch of the evolutionary tree

domains

57

a highly specialized region in a protein produced by 3D arrangement of amino acid chains within and between domains

motifs

58

the large, double stranded, helical molecule that contains the genetic material of all living organisms

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

59

a plymer assemble form repeating nucleotide monomers in which the 5-carbon sugar is ribose

RNA (ribonucleic acid)

60

the monomer of nucleic acids consisting of 5-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate

nucleotide

61

a nitrogen-containing molecule with he properties of a base

nitrogenous base

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a type of nitrogenous base with one carbon-nitrogen ring

pyrimidines

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a type of nitrogenous base with 2 carbon-nitrogen rings

purines

64

chemical structure containing only nitrogenous base and a 5-carbon sugar

nucleoside

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5-carbon sugar to which the nitrogenous bases in nucleotides link covalently

ribose

66

5-carbon sugar to which nitrogenous base and a phosphate group link covalently in a nucleotide of DNA

deoxyribose

67

nucleotide containing ribose as the sugar; components of RNA

ribonucleotides

68

the linkage of nucleotides in polynucleotide chains by a bridging phosphate group between 5' carbon of one sugar and 3' carbon of the next sugar in line

phosphodiester bond

69

2 nucleotide chains wrapped around each other in a spiral

double helix

70

molecule based on carbon

organic molecules