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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (79):
1

technique for producing visible images of objects that are too small to be seen by the human eye

microscopy

2

instrument of microscopy with different magnifications and resolutions of specimens

microscope

3

microscope that uses light to illuminate the specimen

light microscopes

4

microscope that uses electrons to illuminate the specimen

electron microscopes

5

the ration of an object as viewed to its real size

magnification

6

the minimum distance 2 points in a specimen can be separated and still be seen as 2 points

resolution

7

the outer limit of the cytoplasm responsible for the regulation of substances moving into and out of cells

plasma membrane

8

all the parts of the cell that surround the central nucleus (eukaryotes) or nucleoid region (prokaryotes)

cytoplasm

9

the nucleus and other specialized internal structures and compartments of eukaryotic cells
-"little organs"

organelles

10

aqueous solution in the cytoplasm containing ions and various organic molecules

cytosol

11

the interconnected system of protein fibers and tubes that extend throughout the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell

cytoskeleton

12

organism in which the DNA is suspended in the cell interior without separation from other cellular components by a discrete membrane

prokaryotes

13

the central region of a prokaryotic cell with no boundary membrane separating it from the cytoplasm, where DNA replicates and RNA transcription occur

nucleoid

14

organisms in which the DNA is enclosed in a nucleus

eukaryotes

15

the central region of eukaryotic cells, separated by membranes from the surrounding cytoplasm, where DNA replication and messenger RNA transcription occur. it is a concentration of nerve cells within the central nervous system that have related functions

nucleus

16

what is the plasma membrane, and what are its main functions?

the plasma membrane is a bilayer of lipid and suspended protein molecules that bounds the cytoplasm of a cell. The lipid bilayer is hydrophobic; therefore, it is a barrier to the passage of water-soluble substances. The membrane has protein channels through which selected water-soluble substances are able to pass

17

The genetic material of prokaryotes in most cases a single, circular DNA molecule

prokaryotic chromosome

18

a ribonucleoprotein particle that carries out protein synthesis by translating mRNA into chains of amino acids

ribosomes

19

a rigid external layer of material surrounding the plasma membrane of cells in plants, fungi, bacteria, and some protists, providing cell protection and support

cell wall

20

A carbohydrate coat covering the cell surface

glycocalyx

21

a coat typically composed of polysaccharides that is loosely associated with bacterial cells

slime layer

22

an external layer of sticky or slimy polysaccharides coating the cell wall in many prokaryotes

capsule

23

a long threadlike cellular appendage responsible for movement; found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but with different structures and modes of locomotion

flagella

24

a hair or hairlike appendage on the surface of a prokaryote

pili

25

in eukaryotes, membranes separating the nucleus from the cytoplasm

nuclear envelope

26

a large octagonally symmetrical cylindrical structure that functions to exchange molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm and prevents the transport of material not meant to cross the nuclear membrane. a nuclear pore- a channel through the complex- is the path for the exchange of molecules

nuclear pore complex

27

a short amino acid sequence in a protein that directs the protein to the nucleus

nuclear localization signal

28

the liquid or semiliquid substance within the nucleus

nucleplasm

29

an assemblage of eukaryotic nuclear DNA molecules and their associated proteins

chromatin

30

a DNA molecule, with its associated proteins, in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell

eukaryotic chromosome

31

the nuclear site of rRNA transcription, processing, and ribosome assembly in eukaryotes

nucleoli

32

in eukaryotes, a collection of interrelated internal membranous sacs that divide a cell into functional and structural compartments

endomembrane system

33

1) all organisms are composed of 1 or more cells
2) cell is basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms
3) cell arise only from the division of preexisting cells

cell theory

34

a small, membrane-bound compartment that transfersx substances between parts of the endomembrane system

vesicles

35

in eukaryotes, an extensive interconnected network of cisternae that is responsible for the synthesis transport, and initial modification of proteins and lipids

endoplasmic reticulum

36

membranous channels and vesicles that make up the endoplasmic reticulum

cisternae

37

ER lumen

the enclosed space surrounded by a cisterna

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endoplasmic reticulum with many ribosomes studding its outer surface

rough ER

39

endoplasmic reticulum with no ribosomes attached to its membrane surfaces. has various functions, including synthesis of lipid that becomes part of cell membranes

smooth ER

40

in eukaryotes, the organelle responsible for the final modification, sorting, and distribution of proteins and lipids

golgi complex

41

vesicle that transports proteins to the plasma membrane

secretory vesicles

42

in eukaryotes, the process by which a secretory vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases the vesicle contents to the exterior

exocytosis

43

in eukaryotes, the process by which molecules are brought into the cell from the exterior involving a bulging in of the plasma membrane that pinches off to form an endocytic vesicle

enocytosis

44

vesicle that carries proteins and other molecules from the plasma membrane to destinations within the cell

endocytic vesicle

45

membrane-bound vesicle containing hydrolytic enzymes for the digestion of many complex molecules

lysosomes

46

process in which some types of cells engulf bacteria or other cellular debris to break them down

phagocytosis

47

membrane-bound organelle responsible for synthesis of most of the ATP in eukaryotic cells

mitochondria

48

the smooth membrane covering the outside of a mitochondrion

outer mitochondrial membrane

49

membrane surrounding the mitochondrial matrix

inner mitochondrial membrane

50

the innermost compartment of the mitochondrion

mitochondrial matrix

51

fold that expands the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane

crista

52

small, membrane-bound organelle that carries out vital reactions linking metabolic pathways

microbodies

53

microbody that produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product

peroxisomes

54

a cytoskeletal component formed by the polymerization of tubulin into rigid, hollow rods about 25 nm in diameter

microtubules

55

the main microtubule organizing center of a cell, which organizes the microtubule cytoskeleton during interphase and positions many of the cytoplasmic organelles

centrosome

56

a cylindrical structure consisting of 9 triplets of microtubules in the centrosomes of most animal cells

centrioles

57

a cytoskeletal filament about 10 nm in diameter that provides mechanical strength to cells in tissues

intermediate filaments

58

a cytoskeletal filament of actin

microfilaments

59

structure that anchors cilia and flagella to the surface of a cell

basal body

60

the site of photosynthesis in plant cells

chloroplasts

61

a family of plant organelles that includes chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts

plastids

62

colorless plastid that stores starch in plants

amyloplasts

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plastid containing red and yellow pigments

chromoplasts

64

a smooth membrane that surrounds a chloroplast, enclosing the stroma

outer boundary membrane

65

membrane lying just inside the outer boundary membrane of a chloroplast, enclosing the stroma

inner boundary membrane

66

structure in the chloroplasts of higher plants formed by thylakoids stacked one on top of another

grana

67

a large, water-filled organelle in plant cells that maintains the turgor of the cell and controls movement of molecules between the cytosol and sap

central vacuoles

68

The membrane that surrounds the central vacuole in a plant cell

tonoplast

69

the initial cell wall laid down by a plant cell

primary cell wall

70

a layer added to the cell wall of plants that is more rigid and may become many times thicker than the primary cell wall

secondary cell wall

71

layer of gel-like polysaccharides that holds together walls of adjacent plant cells

middle lamella

72

a minute channel that perforates a cell wall and contains extensions of the cytoplasm that directly connect adjacent plant cells

plasmodesmata

73

a cell surface protein responsible for selectively binding cells together

cell adhesion molecules

74

junction that seals the spaces between cells and provides direct communication between cells

cell junctions

75

cell junction that forms belts that run entirely around cells, "welding" adjacent cells together

anchoring junction

76

anchoring junction for which microfilaments anchor the junction in hte underlying cytoplasm

desmosomes

77

animal cell junction in which intermediate filaments are hte anchoring cytoskeletal component

adherens junctions

78

region of tight connection between membranes of adjacent cells

tight junctions

79

junction that opens direct channels allowing ions and small molecules to pass directly from one cell to another

gap junctions