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1

growth

a measurable change in body size, qaunity, or fucntioning

2

maturation

the extent a characteristic reselmbles a mature biological state

3

motor development

the study of how motor behaviour change over time because of biological and enviornmental influences

4

cepholocudual vs proxidmal

head to foot
center to outward

5

readiness

is when an indivdual is pro[ared to aquire a particular behvaiour or skill and has internal motivation to learn

6

infancy <1 year

mlaes are usally slightly heavier, and longer than females at birth
extermely rapid growth
3 x birth weight
increased bith height by 50%

7

childhood (1-13 years)

1-6-loss of baby fat, rapid growth, good flexibility, lots of muscle develoment
7-10- slower and more constant growth
improments in coordination and motor functioning
10-13 -growth spurt preceeded by fat accumulation
puberty- 12-14- height spurt, redistribution of body weight

8

adolescence (14-20 years)

somatotypes:develop
ectomorph: linear shape, delicate bone structure, litle fat, and long, limbs
mesomorph: well-muscled little fat, broad shoulders, narrow waist
endomorph: rounded appearnce, heavy bone, little bone and muscle definition

9

body comp

male fat content at birth 13%
recommneded 10-22%
women fat content at birth 15%
recommended 20-32%

10

motor devlopment

infants:
reflective-sucking
spontaneuous-kicking
redimentary- rolling
early to mid childhood:
fundemental movemnets
walking, running, catching, tthrowing
late childhood and adolescence:
advanced fundemental movements
specilizaed movements are formed by combing skills that are sport specific

11

infant brain

midbrain:
reflex center
most developed at birth
reflexive movements for feeding and protection
cerebrum: (cerebral cortext, hippocampus, basal ganglia)
controls volentary movement, memory, and sensation
redimentary movements that are volutariry cntrolled rolling, sitting, reaching
cerebullum:
the little brain that controls balance and coordination
standing crawling, grasping

12

cardiovasular system

supplies muscles and organs with O2 and nutrients removes metabolic by-products from tissues
cristical for preformace
enhanced by training

13

cardiovasular anatomy

heart
peripheral curriculatory system
red blood cells

14

heart

pumps blood through the human body
will beat about 3 billion time sover our life
one of the first organs to begin functioning after conception

15

muscle cells

3 layers:
1. endocardium (within)
lines the heart chambers
allows smooth blood flow
2. myocardium (middle)
thick and muscular
pumps blood
3. apicardium (upon)
thin
protection
pericardium (around)
protective sac containing pericardial fluid
loosely surrounds heart
reduces friction

16

chambers and vessels

ventricles: pump blood to the body
right ventricle: deoxy blood
to lungs
via pulmonary artery
left ventricle: oxy blood
to body
via aorta
atria:
pump blood into ventricles
right atrium: deoxy blood
from body
via superior/inferior
vena cava
left atrium:
oxy blood
from lungs
via pulmonary vein
*only vein that carries oxygenated blood*

17

valves

semilunar valves:
open when ventricles contract to direct blood flow into arteries
1. pulmonary valve: right ventricle --> pulmonary artery
2. aortic valve: left ventricle--> aorta
close when ventricles relax to prevnt backflow

18

valves 2

atrioventicular valves
open when atria contract to direct blood flow into ventricles
1. tricuspid valve: right atrium--> right ventricle
2. bicuspid/mitral valve: left atrium--> left ventricle
close when atria relax to prevent backflow

19

function

heart contracts in a constant rhythm
may speed up or slow down
depending on the bodys blood and oxygen need
sinus node:
bundle of nerve fibers that controls heart rate
called the pace maker of the heart
loacted inside the right atrium wall
generate a nerve muscle walls to contract
artia 1st, ventricles 2nd

20

blood pressure

1. systolic BP
during venticular contraction (systole)
how hard heart works
strain against arteial walls during contraction
normal: 120mm Hg
2. diastolic BP
during heart relaxation (diastole)
indicates peripheral BP (outside the heart)
ease with which blood flows from arterties to capillaries
normal: 10-80mm Hg

21

cardiac output

the amount of blood pumped into thr aorta each minute
representation of the qaunity of blood flowing to peripheral circulation

22

stroke volume

amount of blood (ml) pumped out of left ventricle per heart beat
resting: 70 ml

23

arteries

carry blood away from the herat
arterioles- small vessels that branch from arteries
capillaries- tiny vessels that branch from arterioles
allow O2 nutrient exchnage; waste and CO2 removal

24

veins

carry blood towards the heart
venules- small vessels that branch from veins
valves- open blood flowing towards the herat
close with blood flowing away from the heart
blood flow against gravity
valves close ro prevent back flow
vanous smooth muscle cells contract
skeletal muscles contract

25

red blood cells

blood:
plasma- transport fluid
platelets-clot forming component
white blood cells- infection fighting cells (leukocyte)
red blood cells- oxygen carrying cells (erythocyte)
RBC's
most abundant cell type in blood
hematocrit-precentage of blood made up in RBC's (usually 45% of blood volume)
carry O2 lung-->body tissues
carry CO2 body tissues --> lung

26

transport of CO2

tissues--> blood --> lunsg --> air
helps regulate body's
ionic equalibrium (chloride shift)
pH balance (bicabonate)
CO2 transport to the lungs occurs in one of 3 wyas

27

O2 uptake

measured as VO-volume of oxygen consumed in a given amount of time
amount of O2 consumed due to aerobic metabolism
measured as O2 volume consumed in one minute
increased energy requirements = increased VO2
there is a limit to the maount of O2 that can be consumed:
maximal aerboic power
varies with genetics and training

28

hemoglobin

read slide

29

factors affecting O2 delivery

cardiac output:
amount of blood pumped by the herat each minute (into the aorta)
determine O2 volume delievered to tissues
hematocrit:
concentration of red blood cells
determines amount of O2 per a volume of blood

30

factors affecting O2 uptake

O2 extraction:
ability of tissues to extract O2
affected by mitocondria number and enzyme efficeiency
capillarization:
number of capilieries in tissue
affects the ability of cardiovasular system to place RBC's close to the working tissues