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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (40)
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1

axial skeleton

skull and facial muscles

2

skull:calvaria

formed by 5 curved flat bones
protect the brain and the brain stem
may get fractured
temporal bone is most fragile

3

skull: facial bones

formed by 5 irregular bones
give it individuality
provide protection for eyes and air passages
allow chewing and entry of food

4

facial muscles

allow us to:
change expression
display emotions
form words

5

we close eyes to
close mouth to

keep them moist and prevent discomfort
chew

6

axial skeleton-thoric region

vertebral column
ribs and sternum
neck and back muscles
abdominal muscles

7

vertebral column

33 vertebrae
function: attachment for back muscles, protects the spinal cord and nerves, absorbs shock through invertebral discs

8

top down vertebraes

7 cervical (neck)
12 thoraic (chest)
5 lumbar (lower back)
1 sacrum = 5 fused vertebrae (mid butt)
1 coccyx = 3 or 4 fused vertebrae (tail bone)

9

ribs and sternum

12 pairs of ribs, some have extra cervical rib
made up of bone and costal cartilage
curved and slightly twisted
functions: give strength to cheast cage and allow it to expand
protect chest area

10

ribs top down

1-7 true ribs (attach to vertebrae and sternum)
8-10 false ribs (attach to sternum indirectly through 7th rib)
11 and 12 floating ribs (attach to vertabral column)

11

sternum

=midline breastbone
3 parts:
manubrium
sternal body
xiphoid process
provides direct attachments to clavicles and 1-7 rib pairs

12

neck and back muscles

head sits on C1
articulates with C2
permit a wide range of movement and allow you to hold up your head

13

neck and back muscles: anterior

the most important pair: sternocleidomastoids
allow to: flex head towards chest

14

neck and back muscles: posterior

large muscle mass = erector spinae
muscle group:
lliocostalis
longissimus
spinalis
maintain erect position
anti-gavity muscles
stop working during loss of consciousness, body falls face forward

15

abdominal muscles

plywood-like muscular wall
trilaminar
3 layers positioned on top of each other
for low back support and rehabilitation

16

layers of abdominal muscles

external oblique
interal oblique : both lateral bending and rotation
rectus abdominis and transverese abdominins: flextion and extention

17

appendicular skeleton

pectoral gridle
sacpulohumeral region
upper limb
pelvic gridle
lower limb

18

pectoral gridle

suspends the supper limb away from the chest wall
enables a great range of movement

19

clavicle

collar bone
only bone directly connecting upper and axial skeleton

20

scapula

shoulder blade
has many muscle attachements to axial skeleton

21

muscles anterior

pectorlis major: clavicular head & sternal head
pectorlis minor: coracoid process of the scapula, stabilizes scapula
seratus anterior: steadies and holds scapula forward against chest wall,
butterfly stroke
subcapularis: adducts and medially rotates upper limb

22

muscles posterior

trapezius:
upper fibers:
shrugging sholders
middle (tranverse fibers:
retract the scapula
lower fibers:
depress the scapula

23

sternoclavicular joint

only joint connecting pectroal gridle (clavicle) and axial skeleton (sternum)

24

acromioclavicular joint

connects clavicle lateral end and scapula acromion process (shoulder seperations in hockey)

25

scapulohumeral region

anterior mucsles
superior and posterior muscles
lateral mucles

26

muscles: superior and posterior

supraspinatus: initiates upper limb abduction
infraspinatus and teres minor: laterly rotate upper limb

27

rotator cuff muscles

SSIT
subscapularis
supraspinatus
infraspinatus
teres minor

28

muscles: lateral

deltoids: move upper limb
anterior fibers: flex and rotate medially
middle fibers: abduct
posterior fibers: extend and laterally rotate

29

upper limb

arm: shoulder to elbow
forearm: elbow to wrist + wrist +hand

30

flexors and extensors

felxors = anterior
extensors = posterior