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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (26)
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1

what is ethics

practical reasoning
questions of good, right, duty and obligation, virtue

2

meta-ethics

specifying the parameters of ethical theories

3

research ethics

agreed upon guidelines for the responsible conduct of research

4

applied ethics

applying theories of ethics to practical problems

5

ethical decisions should be

1) universal
2) impartial/fair
3) possible

6

great traditions in ethics

1. the utilitarian approach- bests conseqeunces
2. the rights approach- intentions and respecting rights
3. the fairness/justice approach- equal/equitable
4. the common good approach- community
5. the virtue approach- values

7

utilitarian approach

from john mill
"the greatest good for the greatest number"
based on perceived consequences
the ethical action is the one that causes the most good and does the least harm

8

rights approach

developed by immanuel kant
focus on our duties / intentions
"the ends do not justify the means"
the ethical action is the one that is consistent and respects autonomy

9

fairness/ justice approach

equality and equity
metaphor of veil of ignorance
ethical actions treat all human beings equally or if unequally, then fairly based on a defensible standard

10

common good approach

based on relationships and contributions to community life
upholding the social contract
ethical actions respects community relationships and treats people with compassion

11

virtue approach

4 ancient virtues: justice, wisdom, courage, self-control
a virtuous person will achieve eudaimonia
the right action is the one that the virtuous person would choose

12

ethical decision making

1. recognizing an ethical issue
2. gathering facts
3. evaluating options
4. making and testing a decision
5. reflecting on outcomes

13

professional sport vs amateur sport

pro: privately owned, paid participants
amateur: managed by governing bodies, volunteer driven

14

impact of commercialization

structure of sport (rule changes)
orientation of individuals in sport
organizations that control sport
"circuits of promotion"
television
cross marketing

15

the sport media nexus

the interdependant relationships between sport organizations, media companies, and corporate sponsors the nexus has played a powerful role in the commercialization of sport and fitness cultures

16

sport relies on the media

media has exacerbated the commercialization of sport
sport needs both the coverage/publicity afforded by the media as well as the money provided by braodcasting rights
2012 1.2 billion for us olympic rights (NBC) and 700 million elsewhere
one consequence: sport has been made to fit the interest of media

17

the commercial imperative

one purpose of media -especially for non-profit media- is to accumulate or aggrerate audiences, which can be sold to advertisers
impacts:
which sport receive media coverage
the ways in which this coverage occurs

18

addressing underconformity

a rejection of norms or lack of awareness of norms
uncomformity is usually not tolerated
athletes unwilling to obey norms are suaully disaplined by coaches

19

signficance of overcomforimity

uncritical accaptance of the rules
taking am adherwnce to the "sport ethicj" too far

20

norms that define the sport ethic

an athlete makes sacrifices for "the game"
an athlete strives for distinction
an athlete accepts risks and plays through pain
an athlete accepts no limits in the pursuits of possibilities

21

consequences of overconformity

often viewed as dedication, not as overconformity deviance
overconformity has ties to the sport-media nexus

22

structure and agency

agency- social class
gender
race and ethnicty
structure- economy
politics
media

23

categories of social analysis- identites

ability
age
ethnicity
gender
race
sexual orientation
social class

24

social stratification and canadian high preformance athletes

gruneau and albinson 1976
-can winter games 1971
42% of althetes fathers came from highest occupational categories (national average 17%)
beamish 1990
-national team athletes1986
67% of fathers came from high occ cats

25

gender norms and sterotypes

femininity: petite, graceful, elegance, pregnant, nurturing, high tolerence to pain, fashionable
masculinity: a man, muscles- strength, facial hair, tall, brave, powerful, protective

26

tucker center report and film 2014

40% of athletes are women
43% of US college scholoarships go to women
4% of media coverage
25% of ESPN's viewership is women
8% of network programming