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equality, equity and inclusion

equality refers to "sameness" and treating everyone alike, regardless of conditions
equity refers to treating people fairly and may require unequal treatment of some people to create a fair playing field
inclusion goes beyond and equality and equity and involves a culture od respect, tolerence, welcoming and beloning
eligibility rules alone do not create safe, inclusive, welcoming spaces


experiences of radicalized minorities in sport

racial stereotyping
media bias towards white athletes
policing of social lives
limiting recuitment of black athletes to remian within an artifical quota
underrepersentation in professional sports, decreasing over time for athletes yet persisting among owners


ethnic and racial relationships in canadian sport

resistance 1984 olympic games
preserving aboriginal games ex) inuit high kick


the arctic winter games

biannually starting in yellowkinife in 1970 with athletes from NWT yukon, and alaska to complete, exchange and share culture
skills preformance and artistry now included with emphasis on survivual skills for the north
most recently in nuuk, greenland march 2016


north american indigenous games

grew out of the rich physical activity tranditions of indigenous peoples and cultures 1st in edmonton 1990
advanced during the 1970's by john fletcher


homophobia and hetrosexism in sport

high performance sport has a history of hegemonic masculinity and femininity ideals that discriminated against athletes
in response, the gay games were created in 1982 to provide a safe space for competition, rejecting exclusion, and qualification
outgames created in 2006 in montreal after gay games administers reclined invitation for montreal host and gave to chicago


ageism in sport

recognition that sport oppotunities decrease as people age and public programs need to include options for older adults
world masters games held since 1985 with first in toronto
age acts start at 27, qualification standards enforced



international charter of physical education and sport (1978)


what is psychology

the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those effecting behavior in a given context
the mental characteristics or attitude of a person or group



the pattern of characteristics thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that distingushes one person from another and that presists over time and situations


trait anxiety

personality charactistic that is relatively stable over time, predisposing the indivdual to be anxious across a wide variety of situations


state anxiety

situation-specific anxiety
cognitive state anxiety- psychological component of state anxiety, caused by fear or failure or neg consequences
somatic- state anxiety: physical compoment of state anxiety, including perception of physiogical responses such as muscualr tension, increased heart rate


interventions to lower conginitive state anxiety

progressive muscular relaxation (PMR)
-controlled breathing in peaceful surroundings, with the focus shifting from one muscle group to another
positive imagery
-with eyes closed, imagine preforming well in the preformance environment that is the source of anxiety
positive self-talk
-re assuring oneself with positive thoughts and statements (training oneself to think pos)



the direction, energy, and intensity of behaviour
inspiration, euthusiaum, and will to win


achievement motivation

the mcclelland atkinson model of achievement motivation (AM) captures this apporach-avoidance situation


techniques for increasing self-efficacy

successful preformance
vicarious experience
verbal persuasion
emotional arousal


casual attribution theory

people strive to explain events based upon their preceptions
locus of control: influence of the athletes
stability: changability over time and situation


what is movement pedagogy

the method and practice of teaching movement (including physical activity, exercise, and sport)
includes intended outcomes
impacted by the historical evolution of physical education curriculum in canada
contributions both positively and neg to the perceived problem chikdhood inactivity and obesity


the move to physical education

in 1889 physical training became compulsory


physical education at the end of the 19th century

by 1891, only 45% of students were recieving the compulsory physical training instruction
poorply trained teachers
few or inadeqate facilities
large class
absence of incentives for school boards
yet by 1921, major growth:
400,000 students enrolled in spelling
500,000 students enrolled in physical education


the turn to child centered pedagogy

rapid expansion of schools in 1950 to accommodate baby boomers
shift from teacher-and subject centered to child-centered pedagogy
complusory requirements reduced


the srathcona trust

to encourage phsycial and military training in the schools


the struggle for public playgorunds

1907: 7 playgrounds created and equipped in winnnipeg
1914: playgrounds opened- many in school courtyards. many were eqipped with steel apparatus, steel baby swings, sand boxes and swings, and public baths