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1

function of the skeletal system

protect bodys organs
provide a supporting framework for movement

2

bone is

a living tissue complete with blood supply and nerves

3

human skeleton

divisions: axial
appendicular

4

how many bones

approx 206 bones
different shapes
classes of bone tissue

5

axial skeleton

80 bones
supports stabilizes, and protects
skull, sterum, ribs, vertebral column

6

appendicular skeleton

126 bones
responsible for large portion of movement
pectoral gridle, upper limb, pelvic gridle, lower limb

7

shape determines

function

8

short bones

includes bones of the ankle (tarsals) and wrists (carpals)
serve as good shock absorbers

9

long bones

include femur, humerus, any bone whos length greatly exceeds its diameter
provide levers for movement

10

flat bones

include bones of the skull, scapula, ribs, sternum, clavicle
largely protect underlying organs

11

irregular bones

include bones of your face, and vertebre
bones that cannot be placed in other groups
fulfill special functions

12

sesamoid bones

includes the patella
oval shape, like a pea, and found in tendons

13

2 classes of bone tissue

compact/cortical: compact, stiff and stress resistant, long bones
spongy/cancellous: flexible, shock absorbers, vertebrae

14

babies are born with how many bones

300 bones (94 more than adult)

15

bone composition

calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate
collogen protien
water

16

calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate

60-70% of bone
stiffness
reistance to pressing/squezzing

17

collagen protien

flexibility
resist pulling and stretch
when lost, bone becomes brittle (aging)

18

water

20% of bone
lower water composition makes bones stronger than other tissues

19

bone develops from

cartilige model
cartilige soldifies into bone through process called ossification

20

muscle types

skeletal
cardiac
smooth

21

skeletal muscle

attached to bone
contraction = body movement
motor nerve control/ voluntary

22

cardiac muscle

heart contraction/beating
very fatigue resistant
has own intrinsic beat
automatic nerve control/involuntary

23

smooth muscle

blood vessels & organs
slow and uniform contractions
fatigue resistant
automatic nerve control/involuntary

24

what is a joint

connection between two or more bones
strands of connective tissue (ligaments) ensure stability and hold joint together
classified by the degree of movement

25

origin

proximal attachment
closer to center of the body
attached to more stationary parts

26

insertion

distal attachment
away from the center of the body
more mobile structure

27

three types of joints

fibrous joints
cartilaginous joints
synovial joints

28

fibrous joints

no movement
absorb shock
ex) skull structures

29

cartilaginous joints

limited movement
absorb shock
ex) interverbral discs

30

synovial joints

greatest degree of movement
allow movement most common
ex) hip joint