Chapter 12 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Psychology 175.102 Deck (49):
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Developmental psychology

Studies the way humans develop and change over time

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Maturation

Biologically based changes that following an orderly sequence, each step setting the stage for the next step according to an age-related timetable.

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Critical periods

Periods of special sensitivity to specific types of learning and sensory stimulation that shape the capacity for future development

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Sensitive periods

Times that are more important to subsequent development than others

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Stages

Relatively discrete steps through which everyone progresses in the same sequence

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Cross sectional studies

Compare groups of participants of different ages at a single time to see whether differences exist among them

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Cohort effects

Differences among age groups associated with differences in the culture

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Longitudinal studies

Assess the same individuals over time, providing the opportunity to assist age changes rather than age differences

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Sequential studies

Minimise the cohort effect by studying multiple cohorts longitudinally

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Teratogens

Environmental agents that harm the embryo or foetus.

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Foetal alcohol syndrome

A serious condition affecting up to half the babies born to alcoholic mothers

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Puberty

The time at which individuals become capable of reproduction

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Presbycusis

The inability to hear high-frequency sounds

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Ageism

Prejudice against old people

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Intermodal processing

The ability to associate sensations of an object from different senses or to match their own actions to behaviours they have observed visually

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Infantile amnesia

Completely lacking explicit memory for events before age 3 or 4

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Stages of prenatal development

Germinal period. (First two weeks)
Embryonic period. (Third week till eighth week)
Foetal period. (Nine weeks till birth)

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Alcohol effect on foetus

Numerous physical deformities, a wide range of mental abnormalities, learning disabilities, behavioural problems and attention difficulties

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Cocaine effects on foetus

Premature birth, malformed internal organs, withdrawal symptoms, respiratory problems, delayed motor development and death

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Maternal stress effects on foetus

Problems with attention and motor development

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Menopause

The sensation of the menstrual cycle. Can result in low estrogen levels. Usually begins in the 40s or 50s and my last several years

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Orienting reflex

The tendency of humans, even from birth, to pay more attention to novel stimuli than to stimuli to which they have become habituated or grown accustomed.

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Assimilation

Involves interpreting actions or events in terms of one presents schemas

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Schema

An organised, repeatedly exercised pattern of thought or behaviour

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Accommodation

The modification of schemas to fit reality

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Equilibrium

Balancing assimilation and accommodation to adapt to the world

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Structure of thought

The distinct underlying logic that children use at each stage of development

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Sensorimotor stage

The stage in which infants think with your hands, mouth and senses, last from birth to about two years of age

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Object permanence

The recognition that objects exist in time and space independent of the child actions on, or observation of, them.

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Egocentric

Thoroughly embedded in their own point of view

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Pre-operational stage

Character rise by the emergence of symbolic thought: the ability to use arbitrary symbols, such as words, to represent concepts. Begins around age 2 and last until ages 5 to 7

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Centration

The tendency to focus, or centre, on one perceptually striking feature of an object without considering other features that might be relevant.

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Operations

Internalised actions the individual can use to manipulate, transform and then return object which original state.

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Concrete operational stage

Children are capable of operating on, or mentally manipulating, internal representations of concrete objects in ways that are reversible. Ages 7 to 12.

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Conservation

The basic properties of an object or situation remains stable (are conserved) even though superficial properties may be changed.

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Formal operational stage

Characterised by the ability to manipulate abstract as well as concrete objects, events and ideas mentally. Begins about ages 12 to 15

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Zone of proximal development (ZPD)

A continuum of cognitive development, ranging from a child's individual capacity for problem solving to a more advanced and collaboratively based level of cognitive development.

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Automatisation

The process of executing mental processes with increasing efficiency so they require less and less attention.

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Knowledgebase

Accumulated knowledge

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Metacognition

Thinking about thinking

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Metamemory

Knowledge about one's own memory and about strategies that can be used to help remember.

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Neo-Piagetian theorists

They attempt to integrate Piagetian and information processing theories

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Psychomotor slowing

And increase the time required for processing and acting on information

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Dementia

A disorder marked by a global disturbance of higher mental functions

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Alzheimer's disease

A progressive and incurable illness that destroys neurons in the brain, severely impairing memory, reasoning, perception, language and behaviour.

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Vygotsky's sociocultural theory

Emphasises the role of social interaction for the child as motivation for cognitive gains and learning

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Criticisms of Piaget's theory

1. Focus too heavily on the kind of rational thinking typical of scientific pursuits
2. The assumption that a child's thinking tends to be at one stage or another
3. Underestimated the capacities of infants and preschool children
4. Failed to pay enough attention to the role of culture in development

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Piaget's theory of cognitive development

He argued that children develop knowledge by constructing reality out of their own experience, mixing what they observed with their own ideas about how the world works.

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Transitivity

That is A < B and B < C, then A < C