Chapter 12 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

175.102 Psychology as a Natural Science > Chapter 12 Psychology 175.102 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 12 Psychology 175.102 Deck (49)
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Developmental psychology

Studies the way humans develop and change over time

1

Maturation

Biologically based changes that following an orderly sequence, each step setting the stage for the next step according to an age-related timetable.

2

Critical periods

Periods of special sensitivity to specific types of learning and sensory stimulation that shape the capacity for future development

3

Sensitive periods

Times that are more important to subsequent development than others

4

Stages

Relatively discrete steps through which everyone progresses in the same sequence

5

Cross sectional studies

Compare groups of participants of different ages at a single time to see whether differences exist among them

6

Cohort effects

Differences among age groups associated with differences in the culture

7

Longitudinal studies

Assess the same individuals over time, providing the opportunity to assist age changes rather than age differences

8

Sequential studies

Minimise the cohort effect by studying multiple cohorts longitudinally

9

Teratogens

Environmental agents that harm the embryo or foetus.

10

Foetal alcohol syndrome

A serious condition affecting up to half the babies born to alcoholic mothers

11

Puberty

The time at which individuals become capable of reproduction

12

Presbycusis

The inability to hear high-frequency sounds

13

Ageism

Prejudice against old people

14

Intermodal processing

The ability to associate sensations of an object from different senses or to match their own actions to behaviours they have observed visually

15

Infantile amnesia

Completely lacking explicit memory for events before age 3 or 4

16

Stages of prenatal development

Germinal period. (First two weeks)
Embryonic period. (Third week till eighth week)
Foetal period. (Nine weeks till birth)

17

Alcohol effect on foetus

Numerous physical deformities, a wide range of mental abnormalities, learning disabilities, behavioural problems and attention difficulties

18

Cocaine effects on foetus

Premature birth, malformed internal organs, withdrawal symptoms, respiratory problems, delayed motor development and death

19

Maternal stress effects on foetus

Problems with attention and motor development

20

Menopause

The sensation of the menstrual cycle. Can result in low estrogen levels. Usually begins in the 40s or 50s and my last several years

21

Orienting reflex

The tendency of humans, even from birth, to pay more attention to novel stimuli than to stimuli to which they have become habituated or grown accustomed.

22

Assimilation

Involves interpreting actions or events in terms of one presents schemas

23

Schema

An organised, repeatedly exercised pattern of thought or behaviour

24

Accommodation

The modification of schemas to fit reality

25

Equilibrium

Balancing assimilation and accommodation to adapt to the world

26

Structure of thought

The distinct underlying logic that children use at each stage of development

27

Sensorimotor stage

The stage in which infants think with your hands, mouth and senses, last from birth to about two years of age

28

Object permanence

The recognition that objects exist in time and space independent of the child actions on, or observation of, them.

29

Egocentric

Thoroughly embedded in their own point of view