Chapter 2 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Psychology 175.102 Deck (101)
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Features shared by psychological research

1. Theoretical framework 2. Standardised procedures 3. Generalisability 4. Objective measurement

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Psychological Research Methods

1. Experimental 2. Descriptive - case study - naturalistic observation - survey research 3. Correlational

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Description

Being able to summarise data your research has produced to make the events and relationships easily understandable

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Prediction

Using the outcome of research to identify what would happen given the same circumstances

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Understanding

Identifying why that would happen

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Evaluating a study

1. Does the theoretical framework make sense? 2. Is the sample adequate and appropriate? 3. Are the measures and procedures adequate? 4. Are the data conclusive? 5. Are the broader conclusions warranted? 6. Does the study say anything meaningful? 7. Is the study ethical?

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Theory

A systematic way of organising and explaining observations.

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Hypothesis

A tentative belief about the relationship between two or more variables.

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Variable

Phenomena that vary or change across individuals or circumstances

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Independent variable

The variables be experimenter manipulates

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Dependent variable

The participants responses

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Conditions

Different possible variations of the independent variable presented to the participant

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Measure

A concrete way of assessing a variable

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Confounding variable

A variable that could produce effects that might be confused with the effects of the independent variable

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Reliability

A measures ability to produce consistent results

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Retest reliability

The tendency of a test to yield relative similar scores for the same individual over time.

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Internal consistency

Several ways of asking the same question yield similar results.

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Interrater reliability

If two different interviewers rate an individual both should give the person similar scores.

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Validity

The measures ability to assess the variable it is supposed to assess.

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Scientific approaches three goals

Description, Prediction and Understanding

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Independent variable

Variables manipulated by the experimenter, which are outside the participants control.

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Dependent variable

The response the experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation had an effect.

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Code of ethics

1. Informed consent 2. Ensure welfare of participants 3. No excessive cash rewards 4. Confidentiality 5. Inform participants afterward if deception was used 6. Minimise discomfort to animals 7. Ensure approval of appropriate body

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Conditions

Different possible variations of the independent variable presented to the participant

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Demand characteristics

The ways participants perceptions of the researchers goals influenced their responses

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Continuous variable

A variable that can be placed on a continuum

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Categorical variable

A variable comprised of groupings or categories

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Standard procedures

Exposing participants in a study to as similar procedures as possible

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Population

The larger group to whom findings should be applicable

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Sample

A subgroup of the population