Chapter 6 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

175.102 Psychology as a Natural Science > Chapter 6 Psychology 175.102 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6 Psychology 175.102 Deck (57):
0

Learning

Any enduring change in the way an organism responds based on its experience.

1

Reflex

A behaviour that is elicited automatically by an environmental stimulus.

2

Stimulus

Something in the environment that elicits a response

3

Habituation

Refers to the decreasing strength of a reflex response after repeated presentations of the stimulus

4

Laws of Association

Conditions under which one thought becomes connected, or associated, with another

5

Law of contiguity

Proposes that two events will become connected in the mind if they are experienced close together in time

6

Law of similarity

States that objects that resemble each other are likely to become associated

7

Classic conditioning

The first type of learning to be studied systematically. An environmental stimulus leads to a learned response, through pairing of the of an unconditioned stimulus the previously neutral conditioned stimulus. Ivan Pavlov

8

Conditioning

A form of learning

9

Unconditioned reflex

A reflex that occurs naturally, without prior learning

10

Unconditioned stimulus

The stimulus that produces a response in an unconditioned reflex.

11

Unconditioned response (UCR)

A response does not have to be learned.

12

Conditioned response (CR)

The response that has to be learned

13

Conditioned stimulus (CS)

A stimulus that, through learning, has come to evoke a conditioned response.

14

Acquisition

The stage of learning in which the condition response becomes associated with the conditioned stimulus.

15

Conditioned emotional responses

Okay when formally neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes an emotional response.

16

Phobias

Irrational fears of specific objects or situations

17

Immune system

The system of cells throughout the body that fights disease

18

Stimulus generalisation

When an organism responds to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus with a similar response.

19

Stimulus discrimination

The learned tendency to respond to a restricted range of stimuli or only to the stimulus used during training.

20

Extinction

In classical conditioning extinction refers to the process by which the conditioned response is weakened by presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus.

21

Spontaneous recovery

The re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response.

22

Interstimulus interval

The time between presentation of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus

23

Operant conditioning

Learning to operate on the environment to produce a consequence.

24

Operants

Behaviours that are emitted (spontaneously produced) rather than elicited by the environment.

25

Reinforcement

And environmental consequence that increases the probability that a response will occur.

26

Punishment

In environmental consequence that decreases the likelihood that a responsible will occur.

27

Positive reinforcement

The process whereby presentation of a stimulus after a behaviour makes the behaviour more likely to occur again.

28

Positive reinforcer

An environmental consequence that, when presented, strengthens the probability that a response will recur.

29

Negative reinforcement

The process whereby termination of an aversive stimulus makes the behaviour more likely to occur

30

Negative reinforcers

Aversive or unpleasant stimuli that strengthen the behaviour by their removal.

31

Avoidance learning

Occurs as an organism learns to prevent an expected aversive event from happening.

32

Punishment

Whereas reinforcement always increases the likelihood of a response, either by presentation of a reward for the removal of an aversive stimulus, punishment decreases the probability that a behaviour will recur.

33

Problems with punishment

Difficulty in distinguishing which operant is being punished.
The learner may come to fear the person meting out the punishment rather than the action.
Punishment may not eliminate existing rewards for a behaviour.
People typically use punishment when they are angry.
Aggression that is used to punish behaviour often leads to further aggression.

34

Extinction in operant conditioning

Occurs if enough trials pass in which the operant is not followed by the consequence previously associated with it.

35

Continuous reinforcement schedule

The consequence is the same each time the animal emits a behaviour. The behaviour is continuously reinforced.

36

Partial or intermittent schedules of reinforcement

An action sometimes leads to reinforcement but other times does not. The behaviour is reinforced only part of the time, or intermittently.

37

Ratio schedules

Pay-offs are tied to the number of responses emitted; only a fraction of correct behaviours receive reinforcement, such as one out of every five.

38

Interval Schedules

Rewards, or punishments, are delivered only after some interval of time, no matter how many responses the organism emits.

39

Fixed-ratio schedule (FR)

In organism receives reinforcement for a fixed proportion of the responses it emits.

40

Variable-ratio schedules (VR)

An animal receives a reward for the some percentage of responses, but the number of responses required before reinforcement is unpredictable.

41

Fixed-interval schedule (FI)

An animal receives reinforcement for its responses only after a fixed amount of time.

42

Variable-interval schedule (VI)

Reinforcement is tied to an interval of time, but unlike a fixed-interval schedule, the animal cannot predict how long that time interval will be.

43

Shaping

A procedure used by animal trainers that produces novel behaviour by reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the desired response.
The shaping procedure should take no more than five minutes, even for a beginner.

44

Successive approximations

The process of rewarding those behaviours that move the subject progressively closer to the desired behaviour

45

Chaining

Involves putting together a sequence of existing responses in a novel order.

46

Cognitive-social theory

Incorporates concept of conditioning but adds two new features: focus on cognition and a focus on social learning.

47

Insight

The sudden understanding of the relation between a problem and a solution

48

Internal locus of control

Individuals with this believe they are the masters of their own fate.

49

External locus of control

People with this believe their lives are determined by forces outside, or external, to themselves.

50

Learned helplessness

Consists of the expectancy that one cannot escape aversive events and the motivational and learning deficits that result from this belief.

51

Explanatory style

The way people make sense of bad events. Plays a critical role in whether or not they become, and remain, depressed.

52

Pessimistic explanatory style

Individuals with a depressive or pessimistic explanatory style blame themselves for the bad things that happen to them.

53

Social learning

Individuals learn many things from the people around them, with or without reinforcement.

54

Modelling

Observational learning in which a person learns to reproduce behaviour exhibited by a model

55

Vicarious conditioning

A person learns the consequences of an action by observing its consequences for someone else.

56

Tutelage

Teaching concepts or procedures primarily through verbal explanation or instruction.