Chapter 6 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

175.102 Psychology as a Natural Science > Chapter 6 Psychology 175.102 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6 Psychology 175.102 Deck (57)
Loading flashcards...
0

Learning

Any enduring change in the way an organism responds based on its experience.

1

Reflex

A behaviour that is elicited automatically by an environmental stimulus.

2

Stimulus

Something in the environment that elicits a response

3

Habituation

Refers to the decreasing strength of a reflex response after repeated presentations of the stimulus

4

Laws of Association

Conditions under which one thought becomes connected, or associated, with another

5

Law of contiguity

Proposes that two events will become connected in the mind if they are experienced close together in time

6

Law of similarity

States that objects that resemble each other are likely to become associated

7

Classic conditioning

The first type of learning to be studied systematically. An environmental stimulus leads to a learned response, through pairing of the of an unconditioned stimulus the previously neutral conditioned stimulus. Ivan Pavlov

8

Conditioning

A form of learning

9

Unconditioned reflex

A reflex that occurs naturally, without prior learning

10

Unconditioned stimulus

The stimulus that produces a response in an unconditioned reflex.

11

Unconditioned response (UCR)

A response does not have to be learned.

12

Conditioned response (CR)

The response that has to be learned

13

Conditioned stimulus (CS)

A stimulus that, through learning, has come to evoke a conditioned response.

14

Acquisition

The stage of learning in which the condition response becomes associated with the conditioned stimulus.

15

Conditioned emotional responses

Okay when formally neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes an emotional response.

16

Phobias

Irrational fears of specific objects or situations

17

Immune system

The system of cells throughout the body that fights disease

18

Stimulus generalisation

When an organism responds to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus with a similar response.

19

Stimulus discrimination

The learned tendency to respond to a restricted range of stimuli or only to the stimulus used during training.

20

Extinction

In classical conditioning extinction refers to the process by which the conditioned response is weakened by presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus.

21

Spontaneous recovery

The re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response.

22

Interstimulus interval

The time between presentation of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus

23

Operant conditioning

Learning to operate on the environment to produce a consequence.

24

Operants

Behaviours that are emitted (spontaneously produced) rather than elicited by the environment.

25

Reinforcement

And environmental consequence that increases the probability that a response will occur.

26

Punishment

In environmental consequence that decreases the likelihood that a responsible will occur.

27

Positive reinforcement

The process whereby presentation of a stimulus after a behaviour makes the behaviour more likely to occur again.

28

Positive reinforcer

An environmental consequence that, when presented, strengthens the probability that a response will recur.

29

Negative reinforcement

The process whereby termination of an aversive stimulus makes the behaviour more likely to occur