Chapter 14 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

175.102 Psychology as a Natural Science > Chapter 14 Psychology 175.102 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14 Psychology 175.102 Deck (55):
0

Health psychology

Is devoted to understanding psychological influences on how people stay healthy, why they become ill and how they respond when they do get ill

1

Aetiology

Cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition

2

Trephination

Involved drilling holes in this skulls of the diseased individual to allow the evil spirits to escape.

3

Humoural theory of illness

Asserts that disease is caused by an imbalance in the four fluids or humours of the body. Blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile.

4

Cartesian dualism

Contends that the mind and the body a completely separate entities.

5

Cellular theory of illness

The idea that illness and disease result from abnormalities within individual cells

6

Biomedical model of health

Takes a reductionist view of illness, reducing disease to biological causes at the level of individual cells.

7

Psychosomatic medicine

The idea that changes in physiology mediate the relationship between unconscious conflicts and illness

8

Biopsychosocial model of health

The idea that health and illness stem from a combination of biological, psychological and social factors.

9

Health belief model

Suggested health behaviours are predicted by four factors: the perceived susceptibility to the health threat, the perceived seriousness of the health threat, the benefits and barriers of undertaking particular health behaviours, and cues to action.

10

Perceived susceptibility

Refers to a persons perception that he is likely to contract a particular illness.

11

Optimistic bias

By which they believe that they are far less likely than other people to contract particular illnesses

12

Perceived seriousness or severity

Refers to an individual's perception of the impact a particular illness would have on her life

13

Benefits and barriers of health behaviour

People evaluate whether the benefits to be gained from stopping the behaviour outweigh the costs or barriers associated with termination of the behaviour

14

Cues to action

Referred to ancillary factors that influence whether or not the person is willing to begin a healthy behaviour or terminate an unhealthy one

15

Self-efficacy

A person's belief in her ability to successfully undertake a particular action or behaviour

16

Protection motivation theory of health

Basically the health belief model plus self-efficacy

17

Theory of reasoned action

Takes a social cognitive view towards health behaviours, broadly stating that behaviousr stem from behavioural intentions.

18

Attitudes

Represent the beliefs one has that particular behaviour will produce a particular outcome and ones evaluation of those outcomes

19

Subjective norms

Reflects someone's perception of how significant other individuals will view the behaviour and the motivation to comply with the desires of those others.

20

Theory of planned behaviour

Includes all the components of the theory of reasoned action plus self-efficacy, sometimes referred to as perceived behavioural control

21

Body mass index (BMI)

The weight in kilograms divided by the height in metres squared: kg/m2

22

Obesity

Refers to an excessive accumulation of body fat, in excess of 30% in women and 20% in men

23

Overweight

People identified as being overweight if they have a body mass index between 25% and 30%, depending on gender and age

24

Set point for weight

An ideal body weight for each individual

25

Susceptible gene hypothesis

Suggests that certain genes increase the likelihood of, but do not guarantee, the development of a particular trait or characteristics e.g. obesity

26

Alcoholism

A person is identified as having alcoholism when he or she is physiologically dependent upon alcohol, and, therefore, shows withdrawal symptoms when no alcohol has been consumed.

27

Problem drinking

Problem drinkers are not physiologically addicted to alcohol, but still have a number of problems stemming from alcohol consumption, including problems with work and family, and health related complications

28

Self handicapping

The process by which people set themselves up to fail

29

Spontaneous remission

Quitting drinking or greatly reducing your alcohol intake on your own, without formal method of intervention

30

Detoxification

The process of drying out from alcohol

31

Aversion therapy

Introduction of something aversive as a means of discouraging the negative health habit

32

Stress

Refers to a challenge to the person's capacity to adapt to inner and outer demands

33

General adaptation syndrome

A bodily response consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance and exhaustion.

34

Alarm

Involves the release of adrenaline in the hormones such as cortisol as well as the activation of the sympathetic nervous system

35

Resistance

The parasympathetic nervous system returns respiration and heartbreak to normal. However blood glucose levels remain high and some stress-related hormones continue to circulate at elevated levels

36

Exhaustion

Physiological defenses breakdown, resulting in greatly increased vulnerability too serious or even life-threatening disease.

37

Transactional model of stress

Stress is typically a transaction between the individual and the environment, rather than a property of either the person or the environment alone. Lazarus

38

Primary appraisal

In a primary appraisal of the situation, the person decides whether the situation is benign, stressful or irrelevant.

39

Secondary appraisal

In the second stage the person evaluates the options and decides how to respond

40

Emotional forecasting

Predicting what feelings the situation will produce (primary appraisal) and predicting the likely emotional impact of each potential response (secondary appraisal).

41

Lazarus' three types of stress

One. Harm or loss.
Two. Threat
Three. Challenge.

42

Stressors

Events that lead to stress. Stressors range from the infrequent, such as the death of a parent, to commonplace, such as a demanding job or a noisy neighbour.

43

Acculturative stress

Refers to the stress people experience in trying to adapt to the new culture

44

Catastrophes

Stressors of massive proportions. Catastrophe is maybe caused by nature or by humans

45

Daily hassles

Minor annoyances of everyday life that contribute to stress

46

Psychoneuroimmunology

Examines the influence of psychological factors on the functioning of the immune system

47

Immune system

The bodies surveillance and security system, which detects and eliminates disease causing agents and the body such as bacteria and viruses

48

Antibodies

Protein molecules that attach themselves to foreign invaders and mark them for destruction

49

Type A behaviour pattern

A personality style categorised by impatience, ambition, competitiveness, hostility and a hard driving approach to life

50

Type B behaviour pattern

More relaxed, easy-going and less easily angered.

51

Coping or coping mechanisms

Residents in the face of stress reveals the ways people deal with stressful situations

52

Problem focused coping

Strategies aimed at changing situation producing stress

53

Emotion focused coping

Efforts to alter thoughts about the situation, and efforts to later the unpleasant emotional consequences of stress

54

Low-effort syndrome

The tendency to exert minimal effort to escape stressful social and economic circumstances