Chapter 14 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

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Health psychology

Is devoted to understanding psychological influences on how people stay healthy, why they become ill and how they respond when they do get ill

1

Aetiology

Cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition

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Trephination

Involved drilling holes in this skulls of the diseased individual to allow the evil spirits to escape.

3

Humoural theory of illness

Asserts that disease is caused by an imbalance in the four fluids or humours of the body. Blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile.

4

Cartesian dualism

Contends that the mind and the body a completely separate entities.

5

Cellular theory of illness

The idea that illness and disease result from abnormalities within individual cells

6

Biomedical model of health

Takes a reductionist view of illness, reducing disease to biological causes at the level of individual cells.

7

Psychosomatic medicine

The idea that changes in physiology mediate the relationship between unconscious conflicts and illness

8

Biopsychosocial model of health

The idea that health and illness stem from a combination of biological, psychological and social factors.

9

Health belief model

Suggested health behaviours are predicted by four factors: the perceived susceptibility to the health threat, the perceived seriousness of the health threat, the benefits and barriers of undertaking particular health behaviours, and cues to action.

10

Perceived susceptibility

Refers to a persons perception that he is likely to contract a particular illness.

11

Optimistic bias

By which they believe that they are far less likely than other people to contract particular illnesses

12

Perceived seriousness or severity

Refers to an individual's perception of the impact a particular illness would have on her life

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Benefits and barriers of health behaviour

People evaluate whether the benefits to be gained from stopping the behaviour outweigh the costs or barriers associated with termination of the behaviour

14

Cues to action

Referred to ancillary factors that influence whether or not the person is willing to begin a healthy behaviour or terminate an unhealthy one

15

Self-efficacy

A person's belief in her ability to successfully undertake a particular action or behaviour

16

Protection motivation theory of health

Basically the health belief model plus self-efficacy

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Theory of reasoned action

Takes a social cognitive view towards health behaviours, broadly stating that behaviousr stem from behavioural intentions.

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Attitudes

Represent the beliefs one has that particular behaviour will produce a particular outcome and ones evaluation of those outcomes

19

Subjective norms

Reflects someone's perception of how significant other individuals will view the behaviour and the motivation to comply with the desires of those others.

20

Theory of planned behaviour

Includes all the components of the theory of reasoned action plus self-efficacy, sometimes referred to as perceived behavioural control

21

Body mass index (BMI)

The weight in kilograms divided by the height in metres squared: kg/m2

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Obesity

Refers to an excessive accumulation of body fat, in excess of 30% in women and 20% in men

23

Overweight

People identified as being overweight if they have a body mass index between 25% and 30%, depending on gender and age

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Set point for weight

An ideal body weight for each individual

25

Susceptible gene hypothesis

Suggests that certain genes increase the likelihood of, but do not guarantee, the development of a particular trait or characteristics e.g. obesity

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Alcoholism

A person is identified as having alcoholism when he or she is physiologically dependent upon alcohol, and, therefore, shows withdrawal symptoms when no alcohol has been consumed.

27

Problem drinking

Problem drinkers are not physiologically addicted to alcohol, but still have a number of problems stemming from alcohol consumption, including problems with work and family, and health related complications

28

Self handicapping

The process by which people set themselves up to fail

29

Spontaneous remission

Quitting drinking or greatly reducing your alcohol intake on your own, without formal method of intervention