Flashcards in Chapter 14 Psychology 175.102 Deck (55)
Is devoted to understanding psychological influences on how people stay healthy, why they become ill and how they respond when they do get ill
Cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition
Involved drilling holes in this skulls of the diseased individual to allow the evil spirits to escape.
Humoural theory of illness
Asserts that disease is caused by an imbalance in the four fluids or humours of the body. Blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile.
Contends that the mind and the body a completely separate entities.
Cellular theory of illness
The idea that illness and disease result from abnormalities within individual cells
Biomedical model of health
Takes a reductionist view of illness, reducing disease to biological causes at the level of individual cells.
The idea that changes in physiology mediate the relationship between unconscious conflicts and illness
Biopsychosocial model of health
The idea that health and illness stem from a combination of biological, psychological and social factors.
Health belief model
Suggested health behaviours are predicted by four factors: the perceived susceptibility to the health threat, the perceived seriousness of the health threat, the benefits and barriers of undertaking particular health behaviours, and cues to action.
Refers to a persons perception that he is likely to contract a particular illness.
By which they believe that they are far less likely than other people to contract particular illnesses
Perceived seriousness or severity
Refers to an individual's perception of the impact a particular illness would have on her life
Benefits and barriers of health behaviour
People evaluate whether the benefits to be gained from stopping the behaviour outweigh the costs or barriers associated with termination of the behaviour
Cues to action
Referred to ancillary factors that influence whether or not the person is willing to begin a healthy behaviour or terminate an unhealthy one
A person's belief in her ability to successfully undertake a particular action or behaviour
Protection motivation theory of health
Basically the health belief model plus self-efficacy
Theory of reasoned action
Takes a social cognitive view towards health behaviours, broadly stating that behaviousr stem from behavioural intentions.
Represent the beliefs one has that particular behaviour will produce a particular outcome and ones evaluation of those outcomes
Reflects someone's perception of how significant other individuals will view the behaviour and the motivation to comply with the desires of those others.
Theory of planned behaviour
Includes all the components of the theory of reasoned action plus self-efficacy, sometimes referred to as perceived behavioural control
Body mass index (BMI)
The weight in kilograms divided by the height in metres squared: kg/m2
Refers to an excessive accumulation of body fat, in excess of 30% in women and 20% in men
People identified as being overweight if they have a body mass index between 25% and 30%, depending on gender and age
Set point for weight
An ideal body weight for each individual
Susceptible gene hypothesis
Suggests that certain genes increase the likelihood of, but do not guarantee, the development of a particular trait or characteristics e.g. obesity
A person is identified as having alcoholism when he or she is physiologically dependent upon alcohol, and, therefore, shows withdrawal symptoms when no alcohol has been consumed.
Problem drinkers are not physiologically addicted to alcohol, but still have a number of problems stemming from alcohol consumption, including problems with work and family, and health related complications
The process by which people set themselves up to fail