Chapter 8 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

175.102 Psychology as a Natural Science > Chapter 8 Psychology 175.102 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 Psychology 175.102 Deck (48):
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Thinking

Manipulating mental representations for a purpose

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Mental images

Visual representations such as the image of the street or a circle

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Mental models

Representations that describe, explain or predict the way things work

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Categories

Groupings based on common properties

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Concept

A mental representation of a category

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Defining features

Qualities that are necessary in order to classify the object is a member of the category

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Well defined concepts

Having properties that clearly set him apart from other concepts

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Prototype

An abstraction across many instances of a category

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Basic level of categorisation

The broadest, most inclusive level at which objects share common attributes that are distinctive of the concept

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Subordinate level of categorisation

The level of categorisation below the basic level in which more specific attributes are shared by members of a category.

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Superordinate level of categorisation

An abstract level in which members of a category share few common features

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Reasoning

The process by which people generate and evaluate arguments and beliefs, typically to try to solve problems

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Inductive reasoning

Reasoning from specific observations to more general propositions

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Deductive reasoning

Logical reasoning that draws a conclusion from a set of assumptions or premises that are based on the rules of logic

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Syllogism

Consists of two premises that lead to a logical conclusion

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Analogical reason

The process by which people understand a novel situation in terms of a familiar one

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Problem solving

The process of transforming one situation into another to meet a goal.
eg. Initial unsatisfactory state to problem resolved (goal state)

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Subgoals

Mini goals on the way to achieving the broader goal

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Problem-solving strategies

Techniques that serves as guides for solving a problem

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Algorithms

Systematic procedures that inevitably produce a solution to a problem

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Mental simulation

Imagining the steps involved in solving a problem mentally before actually undertaking them

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Functional fixedness

The tendency for people to ignore other possible functions of an object when they have fixed function in mind

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Mental set

The tendency to keep using the same problem solving techniques that have worked in the past

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Confirmation bias

The tendency for people to search for confirmation of what they already believe

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Decision-making

The process by which an individual weighs the pros and cons of different alternatives in order to make a choice

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Weighted utility value

Indicates not just how well an option meet certain criteria, but how important that criteria is to making the decision

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Expected utility

A combined judgement of the weighted utility and the expected probability of obtaining that outcome

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Heuristics

Cognitive shortcuts for selecting among alternatives without carefully considering each one

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Representativeness heuristic

In which people categorise by matching the similarity of an object or incident to a prototype but ignore information about its probability of occurring

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Availability heuristic

In which people infer the frequency of something on the basis of how readily it comes to mind

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Bounded rationality

People are rational within the bounds imposed by their environment, goals and abilities

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Explicit cognition

Involves conscious manipulation of representations

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Implicit cognition

Cognition outside of awareness

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Language

The system of symbols, sounds, meanings and rules for their combination that constitutes the primary mode of communication among humans

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Whorfian hypothesis of linguistic relativity

The idea that language shapes thought

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Phonemes

The smallest units of sound that constitutes speech, these are strung together to create meaningful utterances

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Morphemes

The smallest units of meaning in language

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Phrases

Groups of words that act as a unit to convey a meaning

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Sentences

Words and phrases are combined into sentences, organised sequences of words that express a thought or intention

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Syntax

The rules that govern the placement of words and phrases in a sentence

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Semantics

The rules that govern the meanings of morphemes, words, phrases and sentences

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Pragmatics of language

The way language is used and understood in everyday life

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Discourse

The way people ordinarily speak, hear, read and write interconnected sentences

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Non-verbal communication

Body language, gestures, touch, physical distance, facial expressions and non-verbal vocalisations

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Universal grammar

An innate, shared set of linguistic principles. Proposed by Chomsky

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Language acquisition device (LAD)

Chomsky proposed that humans are born with an innate set of neural structures for acquiring language.

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Babbling

The baby's first recognisable speech sounds

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Telegraphic speech

Utterances composed of only the most essential words for meaning