Chapter 8 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

175.102 Psychology as a Natural Science > Chapter 8 Psychology 175.102 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 Psychology 175.102 Deck (48)
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Thinking

Manipulating mental representations for a purpose

1

Mental images

Visual representations such as the image of the street or a circle

2

Mental models

Representations that describe, explain or predict the way things work

3

Categories

Groupings based on common properties

4

Concept

A mental representation of a category

5

Defining features

Qualities that are necessary in order to classify the object is a member of the category

6

Well defined concepts

Having properties that clearly set him apart from other concepts

7

Prototype

An abstraction across many instances of a category

8

Basic level of categorisation

The broadest, most inclusive level at which objects share common attributes that are distinctive of the concept

9

Subordinate level of categorisation

The level of categorisation below the basic level in which more specific attributes are shared by members of a category.

10

Superordinate level of categorisation

An abstract level in which members of a category share few common features

11

Reasoning

The process by which people generate and evaluate arguments and beliefs, typically to try to solve problems

12

Inductive reasoning

Reasoning from specific observations to more general propositions

13

Deductive reasoning

Logical reasoning that draws a conclusion from a set of assumptions or premises that are based on the rules of logic

14

Syllogism

Consists of two premises that lead to a logical conclusion

15

Analogical reason

The process by which people understand a novel situation in terms of a familiar one

16

Problem solving

The process of transforming one situation into another to meet a goal.
eg. Initial unsatisfactory state to problem resolved (goal state)

17

Subgoals

Mini goals on the way to achieving the broader goal

18

Problem-solving strategies

Techniques that serves as guides for solving a problem

19

Algorithms

Systematic procedures that inevitably produce a solution to a problem

20

Mental simulation

Imagining the steps involved in solving a problem mentally before actually undertaking them

21

Functional fixedness

The tendency for people to ignore other possible functions of an object when they have fixed function in mind

22

Mental set

The tendency to keep using the same problem solving techniques that have worked in the past

23

Confirmation bias

The tendency for people to search for confirmation of what they already believe

24

Decision-making

The process by which an individual weighs the pros and cons of different alternatives in order to make a choice

25

Weighted utility value

Indicates not just how well an option meet certain criteria, but how important that criteria is to making the decision

26

Expected utility

A combined judgement of the weighted utility and the expected probability of obtaining that outcome

27

Heuristics

Cognitive shortcuts for selecting among alternatives without carefully considering each one

28

Representativeness heuristic

In which people categorise by matching the similarity of an object or incident to a prototype but ignore information about its probability of occurring

29

Availability heuristic

In which people infer the frequency of something on the basis of how readily it comes to mind