Chapter 11 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

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Personality

Personality refers to the enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation and behaviour that are expressed in different circumstances

1

Structure of personality

The organisation of enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation and behaviour.

2

Individual differences

Individual differences in personality; the way people differ from one another

3

Psychodynamics

Psychological dynamics analogous to dynamics among physical forces.

4

Topographic model

Divided processes into three types: conscious, pre-conscious and unconscious.

5

Conscious mental processes

Rational, goal directed thoughts at the centre of awareness

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Pre-conscious mental processes

Not conscious but could become conscious at any point, such as knowledge of the colour of Robbins.

7

Unconscious mental processes

Irrational, organised along associative lines rather than by logic

8

Ambivalence

Conflicting feelings or motives

9

Conflict

A tension or battle between opposing motives

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Compromise formations

The solutions people develop to maximise fulfilment of conflicting motives simultaneously

11

Drive or instinct model

Focused on what drives or motivates people. Freud

12

Libido

Refers as much to pleasure seeking, sexuality and love as it does to desires for sexual intercourse.

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Psychosexual stages

Stages in the development of personality, sexuality and motivation

14

Development model - Freud

Freud's model of how children develop

15

Oral stage

The first 18 months of life. Children explore the world through their mouths. Dependency

16

Fixations

Conflicts or concerns that persist beyond the developmental period in which they arise

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Anal stage

Ages 2 to 3 years.
Categorised by conflicts with parents about compliance and defiance.
Orderliness, cleanliness, control, compliance.

18

Phallic stage

Ages 4 to 6 years.
During the phallic stage the child identifies with significant others, especially the same-sex parent.
Oedipus complex, establishment of conscience

19

Identification

Making another person part of one's self: imitating the person's behaviour, changing the self-concept to see oneself as like the person.

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Oedipus complex

Freud's hypothesis that little boys want exclusive relationship with their mothers, and little girls want an exclusive relationship with their fathers.

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Castration complex

A small boys fear of castration by the father or others

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Penis envy

The girls belief that because they make a penis they are inferior to boys

23

Latency stage

Ages 7 to 11 years.
Children repressed their sexual impulses and continue to identify with the same-sex parent

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Genital stage

Age 12 years and beyond.
Conscious sexuality resurfaces after years of repression, and genital sex becomes the primary goal of sexual activity.
Mature sexuality and relationships

25

Structural model

Described conflict in terms of desires on the one hand and the dictates of conscious or the constraints of reality on the other

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Id

The reservoir of sexual and aggressive energy.
Is driven by impulses and, like the unconscious of the topographic model, is characterised by primary process thinking: wishful, illogical and associative thought

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Primary process thinking

Wishful, illogical and associative thought
Part of id

28

Pleasure principle

Seeking immediate satisfaction and gratification, with little or no consideration for the longer term ramifications.
Part of id

29

Superego

Acts as a conscience and source of ideals