Chapter 1 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

175.102 Psychology as a Natural Science > Chapter 1 Psychology 175.102 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Psychology 175.102 Deck (35):
0

The scientific investigation of mental processes and behaviour

Psychology

1

The extent to which different parts of the brain control different aspects of functioning

Localisation of function

2

Investigates the physical basis of psychological phenomena such as memory, emotion and stress

Bio-psychology

3

Observation the individual in the natural setting and considers the individual as part of a culture Mead and Benedict

Psychological anthropologist

4

Compeers the individual of one culture was that of another

Cross-cultural psychology

5

Free will says we're free to act as we choose. Determinism says our actions are controlled by outside influences

Free will versus determinism

6

How do mental and physical events interact?

Mind-body problem

7

The process of looking inward and reporting one's conscious experience. Wundt and Titchener

Introspection

8

The attempt to undercover the basic elements of consciousness through introspection. Titchener

Structuralism

9

The attempt to explain psychological processes in relation to the function they serve. William James

Functionalism

10

Hey broad system of theoretical assumptions that a scientific community uses to make sense of it is domain of study

Paradigm

11

Schools of thought that can be used to understand psychological events

Perspectives

12

Actions reflect the way thoughts, feelings and wishes are associated in minds; many of these are unconscious; mental processes can conflict leading to compromises. Freud

Psychodynamics

13

Focuses on the way objects or events in the environment (stimuli) come to control behaviour. Skinner and Watson

Behaviorist perspective

14

The doctrine of dual spheres of mind and body

Cartesian Dualism

15

The belief that the path to scientific knowledge is systematic observation and experimental observation

Empiricism

16

Emphasises the uniqueness of the individual and focuses on the person's immediate experience. Maslow and Rogers

Humanistic perspective

17

To treat people with respect and warmth, stressing every individual freedom to make their own choices

Empathy

18

The person we truly want to become

Ideal self

19

The idea that people are motivated to reach their full potential

Self actualisation

20

Focuses on the person and their immediate experience

Person centred

21

How we perceive ourselves now

Self-concept

22

Focuses on the way people perceive, process and retrieve information. Descartes

Cognitive perspective

23

Thinking; the environment provides inputs, which are transformed, stored and retrieve using various mental programs, leading to specific response outcomes.

Information processing

24

Emphasised the role of reason in creating knowledge

Rationalist philosophers

25

Argues that many behavioural tendencies in humans evolved because they helped our ancestors survive and rear healthy offspring. Darwin

Evolutionary perspective

26

Nature: that behaviour reflects shared tendencies rooted in biology. Nature: that behaviour is primarily learned.

Nature versus nurture

27

Studies animal behaviour from the biological and evolutionary perspective

Ethology

28

Natural forces select traits that are adaptive and likely to be passed on to offspring

Natural selection

29

Characteristics that help organisms to adjust and survive in their environment

Adaptive traits

30

Explores possible evolutionary and biological basis of human social behaviour

Sociobiology

31

Apply evolutionary thinking to a wide range of psychological phenomena. They proposed that genetic transmission is not limited to physical traits

Evolutionary psychologists

32

Refers to the capacity to survive and produce offspring

Reproductive success

33

Refers not only to an individual's own reproductive success but also to his influence on the reproductive success of genetically related individuals

Inclusive fitness

34

Perception is an active experience of imposing order on an overwhelming panorama of details by seeing them as parts of large wholes or gestalts

Gestalt psychology