Chapter 4 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

175.102 Psychology as a Natural Science > Chapter 4 Psychology 175.102 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Psychology 175.102 Deck (54):
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Sensation

Sensation is the process by which sense organs gather information about the environment and transmit it to the brain for initial processing

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Perception

Perception is the related process by which the brain selects organises and interprets sensations

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Sensory receptors

Specialised cells in the nervous system that transform energy in the environment in to neural impulses that can be interpreted by the brain

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Transduction

The process of converting physical energy or stimulus information into impulses

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Absolute threshold

The minimum amount of physical energy needed for an observer to notice a stimulus

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Signal detection theory

Asserts that judgements about the presence or absence of stimulus reflect the observer's sensitivity to the stimulus and the observers response bias.

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Response bias

The individual readiness to report detecting a stimulus when uncertain

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Difference threshold

The lowest level of stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred

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Just noticeable difference, JND

The just detectable difference between two stimuli

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Weber's law

States that regardless of the magnitude of two stimuli, the second must differ by constant proportion from the first for it to be perceived as different.

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Fechner's law

States that the magnitude of the stimulus grows logarithmically as the subjective experience of intensity grows arithmetically, so that people subjectively experience only a fraction of actual increases in stimulation.

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Steven's Power law

States that subjective intensity increases in a linear fashion as actual intensity grows exponentially.

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Wavelengths

Different forms of radiation have waves of different length

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Cornea

A tough transparent tissue covering the front of the eyeball

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Pupil

An opening in the centre of the iris

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Iris

The pigmented tissue that gives the eye it's blue, green or brown colour

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Lens

And elastic, disc shaped structure about the size of lima bean that is involved in focusing the eyes.

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Accommodation

The process in which the lens flattens for distant objects and becomes more rounded or spherical for closer objects.

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Retina

A light sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye that transduces light into visual sensations.

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Vitreous humour

The clear liquid in the eye

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Rods and cones

Two types of light receptors, or photo receptors, which are named for the distinctive shapes.

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Bipolar cells

Information from rods and cones are transmitted to these, then onto ganglion cells

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Ganglion cells

These integrate information from many bipolar cells

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Optic nerve

Made up of axons from many ganglion cells, this optic nerve carries visual information to the brain

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Fovea

The central region of the retina. Most sensitive to small detail

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Blindspot

The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye.

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What pathway of vision

Involved in determining what an object is.

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Where pathway of vision

Involved in locating an object in space, following is movement, and guiding movement towards it.

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Feature detectors

Feature detectors in the primary visual cortex respond only when stimulation in their respective field matches a particular pattern or orientation.

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Hue

What people mean by colour. That is whether an object appears blue, red, violet and so on.

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Saturation

The extent to which colour is diluted with a white or black, or saturated with its own wavelength

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Lightness

The extent to which a colour is light or dark

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Trichromatic theory of colour

According to this theory the eye contains three types of receptors, which are most sensitive to wavelengths experienced as red, green or blue.

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Opponent-process theory

According to this theory the colours we experience (and the after image we perceive) reflect three antagonistic colour systems; a blue-yellow, red-green and black-white system.

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Audition

Hearing

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Sound waves

The way in which sound travels, which occur as a vibrating object sets air particles in motion.

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Cycles

Each round of expansion and contradiction of the distance between molecules of air

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Frequency

A measure of how often a wave cycles. Frequency is expressed in hertz.

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Pitch

The quality of the tone, from low to high.

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Complexity

Refers to the extent to which sound is composed of multiple frequencies, and corresponds to the psychological property of timbre.

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Timbre

The texture of sound

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Amplitude

Refers to the height and depth of a wave, that is, the difference between its maximum and minimum pressure level. The amplitude of a soundwave corresponds to the psychological property of loudness.

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Transduction of hearing

Pinnas
Eardrum or tympanic membrane
Cochlea
Auditory receptors or hair cells
Sensory neurons
Auditory nerve
Medulla
Splits to the midbrain - inferior colliculus
Splits to the thalamus. Then the primary auditory cortex

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Cochlea

A 3 chambered tube in the inner ear shaped like a snail and involved in the transduction of sound.

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Place theory of sensing pitch

Best explains transaction at high frequencies, different areas of the basilar membrane respond to different frequencies.

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Frequency theory of hearing pitch

Best explains transduction at low frequencies, the rate of vibration of the basilar membrane transforms frequency into pitch.

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Sound localisation

Identifying the location of the sound in space: differences between the two ears in loudness and timing of the sound.

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Olfaction

Smell

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Pheromones

Scent messages detected through an auxiliary olfactory system that regulate the sexual behaviour of many animals and direct a variety of behaviours in insects

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Transduction of smell

Molecules in the air
Olfactory epithelium
Olfactory mucus
Olfactory receptor cells
Olfactory nerve
Olfactory bulb
Olfactory tract
Primary olfactory cortex
Splits to amygdala
Splits to thalamus

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Gustation

Taste

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Tastebuds

Where transduction of taste occurs

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Transduction of taste

Molecules in saliva
Taste buds
Taste receptors
Gustily nerve
Medulla and pons
Splits to limbic system
Splits to thalamus. Then to primary gastric cortex

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Proprioceptive senses

Vestibular sense. Provides information about the position of the body in space by sensing gravity and movement.
Kinaesthesia. Provides information about the movement the position of the limbs and other parts of the body relative to one another.