Flashcards in Chapter 4 Psychology 175.102 Deck (54):
Sensation is the process by which sense organs gather information about the environment and transmit it to the brain for initial processing
Perception is the related process by which the brain selects organises and interprets sensations
Specialised cells in the nervous system that transform energy in the environment in to neural impulses that can be interpreted by the brain
The process of converting physical energy or stimulus information into impulses
The minimum amount of physical energy needed for an observer to notice a stimulus
Signal detection theory
Asserts that judgements about the presence or absence of stimulus reflect the observer's sensitivity to the stimulus and the observers response bias.
The individual readiness to report detecting a stimulus when uncertain
The lowest level of stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred
Just noticeable difference, JND
The just detectable difference between two stimuli
States that regardless of the magnitude of two stimuli, the second must differ by constant proportion from the first for it to be perceived as different.
States that the magnitude of the stimulus grows logarithmically as the subjective experience of intensity grows arithmetically, so that people subjectively experience only a fraction of actual increases in stimulation.
Steven's Power law
States that subjective intensity increases in a linear fashion as actual intensity grows exponentially.
Different forms of radiation have waves of different length
A tough transparent tissue covering the front of the eyeball
An opening in the centre of the iris
The pigmented tissue that gives the eye it's blue, green or brown colour
And elastic, disc shaped structure about the size of lima bean that is involved in focusing the eyes.
The process in which the lens flattens for distant objects and becomes more rounded or spherical for closer objects.
A light sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye that transduces light into visual sensations.
The clear liquid in the eye
Rods and cones
Two types of light receptors, or photo receptors, which are named for the distinctive shapes.
Information from rods and cones are transmitted to these, then onto ganglion cells
These integrate information from many bipolar cells
Made up of axons from many ganglion cells, this optic nerve carries visual information to the brain
The central region of the retina. Most sensitive to small detail
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye.
What pathway of vision
Involved in determining what an object is.
Where pathway of vision
Involved in locating an object in space, following is movement, and guiding movement towards it.
Feature detectors in the primary visual cortex respond only when stimulation in their respective field matches a particular pattern or orientation.
What people mean by colour. That is whether an object appears blue, red, violet and so on.
The extent to which colour is diluted with a white or black, or saturated with its own wavelength
The extent to which a colour is light or dark
Trichromatic theory of colour
According to this theory the eye contains three types of receptors, which are most sensitive to wavelengths experienced as red, green or blue.
According to this theory the colours we experience (and the after image we perceive) reflect three antagonistic colour systems; a blue-yellow, red-green and black-white system.
The way in which sound travels, which occur as a vibrating object sets air particles in motion.
Each round of expansion and contradiction of the distance between molecules of air
A measure of how often a wave cycles. Frequency is expressed in hertz.
The quality of the tone, from low to high.
Refers to the extent to which sound is composed of multiple frequencies, and corresponds to the psychological property of timbre.
The texture of sound
Refers to the height and depth of a wave, that is, the difference between its maximum and minimum pressure level. The amplitude of a soundwave corresponds to the psychological property of loudness.
Transduction of hearing
Eardrum or tympanic membrane
Auditory receptors or hair cells
Splits to the midbrain - inferior colliculus
Splits to the thalamus. Then the primary auditory cortex
A 3 chambered tube in the inner ear shaped like a snail and involved in the transduction of sound.
Place theory of sensing pitch
Best explains transaction at high frequencies, different areas of the basilar membrane respond to different frequencies.
Frequency theory of hearing pitch
Best explains transduction at low frequencies, the rate of vibration of the basilar membrane transforms frequency into pitch.
Identifying the location of the sound in space: differences between the two ears in loudness and timing of the sound.
Scent messages detected through an auxiliary olfactory system that regulate the sexual behaviour of many animals and direct a variety of behaviours in insects
Transduction of smell
Molecules in the air
Olfactory receptor cells
Primary olfactory cortex
Splits to amygdala
Splits to thalamus
Where transduction of taste occurs
Transduction of taste
Molecules in saliva
Medulla and pons
Splits to limbic system
Splits to thalamus. Then to primary gastric cortex