Flashcards in Chapter 13 Psychology 175.102 Deck (58):
Changes in interpersonal thought, feeling and behaviour throughout the life span
The enduring ties of affection that children form with the primary caregivers. Includes a desire for proximity to an attachment figure, a sense of security derived from the person's presence and feelings of distress when the person is absent.
The ties that bind an infant to its caregivers. Harry Harlow
The tendency of young animals of certain species to follow an animal to which they were exposed during a sensitive period early in their lives
Distress at separation from their attachment figures
Secure attachment style
Infant who welcome their mothers return and seek closeness to her.
Avoidant attachment style
Infants who ignore the mother when she returns
Ambivalent attachment style
Infants who are angry and rejecting while simultaneously indicating a clear desire to be close to the mother
Disorganised attachment style
Behaving contradictory ways, indicating helpless efforts to elicit soothing responses from the attachment figure. They often approach the mother while simultaneously gazing away, or appearing disoriented, is manifested in stereotyped rocking and dazed facial expressions.
Internal working models
Or mental representations of attachment relationships that form the basis for expectations in close relationships
Refers to ways of experiencing attachment relationships in adulthood
Learning the rules, beliefs, values, skills, attitudes and behaviour patterns of your society. Children learned from a variety of socialisation agents, individuals and groups that transmit social knowledge and values to the child.
Parents place high-value on obedience and respect for authority
Parents imposed virtually no controls on the children, allowing them to make a own decisions whenever possible
Parents set standards for the children and firmly enforce them, but they also in courage give and take and explain Their views while showing respect for the children's opinions
Parents who consistently placed to own needs above the needs of the child
Guidance approach parenting
Parents help the children to manage their emotions, cooperate with others and think about the effects of their behaviour on others.
Specify the range of behaviours considered appropriate for males and females
Refers to the psychological meaning of being male or female, which influenced by learning
Refers to a biological categorisation based on genetic and anatomical differences
The process by which children acquire personality traits, emotional responses, skills, behaviours and preferences that are culturally considered appropriate to their sex.
Children who are disliked by their peers
Children who are ignored by their peers
The child's understanding of themselves, others and relationships
An organised view of ourselves or way of representing information about the self
The ability to understand other people's viewpoints or perspectives
Theory of mind
An implicit set of ideas about the existence of mental states, such as beliefs and feelings, in oneself and others
The ability to categorise themselves and others as either male or female
Occurs when children understand that their gender remains constant over time
Occurs when children learn that a persons gender cannot be altered by changes in appearance or activities
Mental representations that associates psychological characteristics with each sex
Beliefs about appropriate behaviours of the sexes
Morality of constraint
In which children believe that morals are absolute
Morality of cooperation
Moral rules can be changed if they are not appropriate to the occasion, as long as the people involved agree to do so
Children follow moral rules either to avoid punishment or to obtain reward
Children define what is right and wrong by the standards they have learned from other people, particularly respected authorities such as the parents
Post conventional morality
The morality of abstract, self defined principles that may or may not match the dominant morals of the time
Behaviour that benefits other individuals or groups
Self-centred and interested in gratifying their own needs
Feeling for another person who is hurting. Empathy has both the cognitive component (understanding what the person is experiencing) and emotional component (experiencing a similar feeling).
Feeling upset for another person. Can motivate moral or prosocial behaviour.
Stages in the development of a person as a social being. Eric Ericsson
A challenge that is normative for that period of life
Ericsson's psychosocial stages
0 to 18 mths. Basic trust versus mistrust.
1 to 2 years. Autonomy versus shame and doubt.
3 to 6 years. Initiative versus guilt.
7 to 11 years. Industry versus inferiority.
Teenage years. Identity versus identity confusion.
20s-30s. Intimacy versus isolation.
40s-60s. Generativity versus stagnation.
60s on. Integrity versus despair.
Basic trust versus mistrust. 0 to 18 months.
Infants come to trust others or to perceive the social world is hostile or unreliable.
Autonomy versus shame and doubt. 1 to 2 years
Toddlers at this stage learn to feel secure and independent or to experience doubt in their new-found skills and shame at their failures.
Initiative versus guilt
A sense of goal-directness and responsibility versus a rigid, tyrannical conscience
Industry versus an inferiority. 7 to 11 years
Children develop a sense of competence or of in adequacy, as they begin to develop and practice skills that they will use for a lifetime of productive work.
Identity versus identity confusion. Adolescence
Identity - A stable sense of who one is and what one's values and ideals are.
Identity confusion - when the individual fails to develop coherent and enduring sense of self and has difficulty committing to roles, values, people or occupational choices.
Ceremonies during adolescence that initiate the child into adult hood and impose a socially bestowed identity.
Defining themselves is not something or someone or taking on a role a society defines as bad
Intimacy versus isolation. Young adults
Establishing enduring, committed relationships or withdrawing and avoiding commitment.
Generativity versus stagnation. Midlife
People begin to leave some kind of lasting legacy or feel alienated from relationships and community.
Means concern for the next generation as well as an interest in producing something of lasting value to society.
The feeling that the promise of youth has gone unfulfilled.
Integrity versus despair. 60s and on.
A time in which individuals look back on their lives with a sense of having lived well or with despair and regret.
Conflict model of social and personality development
Conflict in crisis are normal in adolescence. Adolescents need to go through a period of crisis to separate themselves psychologically from their parents and to carveout your own identity