Chapter 13 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Psychology 175.102 Deck (58):
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Social development

Changes in interpersonal thought, feeling and behaviour throughout the life span

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Attachment

The enduring ties of affection that children form with the primary caregivers. Includes a desire for proximity to an attachment figure, a sense of security derived from the person's presence and feelings of distress when the person is absent.

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Contact comfort

The ties that bind an infant to its caregivers. Harry Harlow

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Imprinting

The tendency of young animals of certain species to follow an animal to which they were exposed during a sensitive period early in their lives

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Separation anxiety

Distress at separation from their attachment figures

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Secure attachment style

Infant who welcome their mothers return and seek closeness to her.

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Avoidant attachment style

Infants who ignore the mother when she returns

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Ambivalent attachment style

Infants who are angry and rejecting while simultaneously indicating a clear desire to be close to the mother

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Disorganised attachment style

Behaving contradictory ways, indicating helpless efforts to elicit soothing responses from the attachment figure. They often approach the mother while simultaneously gazing away, or appearing disoriented, is manifested in stereotyped rocking and dazed facial expressions.

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Internal working models

Or mental representations of attachment relationships that form the basis for expectations in close relationships

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Adult attachment

Refers to ways of experiencing attachment relationships in adulthood

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Socialisation

Learning the rules, beliefs, values, skills, attitudes and behaviour patterns of your society. Children learned from a variety of socialisation agents, individuals and groups that transmit social knowledge and values to the child.

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Authoritarian parenting

Parents place high-value on obedience and respect for authority

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Permissive parenting

Parents imposed virtually no controls on the children, allowing them to make a own decisions whenever possible

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Authoritative parenting

Parents set standards for the children and firmly enforce them, but they also in courage give and take and explain Their views while showing respect for the children's opinions

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Uninvolved parenting

Parents who consistently placed to own needs above the needs of the child

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Guidance approach parenting

Parents help the children to manage their emotions, cooperate with others and think about the effects of their behaviour on others.

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Gender roles

Specify the range of behaviours considered appropriate for males and females

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Gender

Refers to the psychological meaning of being male or female, which influenced by learning

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Sex

Refers to a biological categorisation based on genetic and anatomical differences

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Sex typing

The process by which children acquire personality traits, emotional responses, skills, behaviours and preferences that are culturally considered appropriate to their sex.

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Rejected children

Children who are disliked by their peers

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Neglected children

Children who are ignored by their peers

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Social cognition

The child's understanding of themselves, others and relationships

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Self-concept

An organised view of ourselves or way of representing information about the self

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Perspective taking

The ability to understand other people's viewpoints or perspectives

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Theory of mind

An implicit set of ideas about the existence of mental states, such as beliefs and feelings, in oneself and others

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Gender identity

The ability to categorise themselves and others as either male or female

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Gender stability

Occurs when children understand that their gender remains constant over time

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Gender constancy

Occurs when children learn that a persons gender cannot be altered by changes in appearance or activities

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Gender schemas

Mental representations that associates psychological characteristics with each sex

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Sex-role ideology

Beliefs about appropriate behaviours of the sexes

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Morality of constraint

In which children believe that morals are absolute

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Morality of cooperation

Moral rules can be changed if they are not appropriate to the occasion, as long as the people involved agree to do so

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Pre-conventional morality

Children follow moral rules either to avoid punishment or to obtain reward

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Conventional morality

Children define what is right and wrong by the standards they have learned from other people, particularly respected authorities such as the parents

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Post conventional morality

The morality of abstract, self defined principles that may or may not match the dominant morals of the time

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Prosocial behaviour

Behaviour that benefits other individuals or groups

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Narcissistic

Self-centred and interested in gratifying their own needs

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Empathy

Feeling for another person who is hurting. Empathy has both the cognitive component (understanding what the person is experiencing) and emotional component (experiencing a similar feeling).

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Empathic distress

Feeling upset for another person. Can motivate moral or prosocial behaviour.

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Psychosocial stages

Stages in the development of a person as a social being. Eric Ericsson

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Developmental task

A challenge that is normative for that period of life

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Ericsson's psychosocial stages

0 to 18 mths. Basic trust versus mistrust.
1 to 2 years. Autonomy versus shame and doubt.
3 to 6 years. Initiative versus guilt.
7 to 11 years. Industry versus inferiority.
Teenage years. Identity versus identity confusion.
20s-30s. Intimacy versus isolation.
40s-60s. Generativity versus stagnation.
60s on. Integrity versus despair.

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Basic trust versus mistrust. 0 to 18 months.

Infants come to trust others or to perceive the social world is hostile or unreliable.

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Autonomy versus shame and doubt. 1 to 2 years

Toddlers at this stage learn to feel secure and independent or to experience doubt in their new-found skills and shame at their failures.

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Initiative versus guilt

A sense of goal-directness and responsibility versus a rigid, tyrannical conscience

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Industry versus an inferiority. 7 to 11 years

Children develop a sense of competence or of in adequacy, as they begin to develop and practice skills that they will use for a lifetime of productive work.

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Identity versus identity confusion. Adolescence

Identity - A stable sense of who one is and what one's values and ideals are.
Identity confusion - when the individual fails to develop coherent and enduring sense of self and has difficulty committing to roles, values, people or occupational choices.

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Initiation rights

Ceremonies during adolescence that initiate the child into adult hood and impose a socially bestowed identity.

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Negative identity

Defining themselves is not something or someone or taking on a role a society defines as bad

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Intimacy versus isolation. Young adults

Establishing enduring, committed relationships or withdrawing and avoiding commitment.

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Generativity versus stagnation. Midlife

People begin to leave some kind of lasting legacy or feel alienated from relationships and community.

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Generativity

Means concern for the next generation as well as an interest in producing something of lasting value to society.

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Stagnation

The feeling that the promise of youth has gone unfulfilled.

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Integrity versus despair. 60s and on.

A time in which individuals look back on their lives with a sense of having lived well or with despair and regret.

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Conflict model of social and personality development

Conflict in crisis are normal in adolescence. Adolescents need to go through a period of crisis to separate themselves psychologically from their parents and to carveout your own identity

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Continuity model of social and personality development.

Adolescents is not a turbulent period but is essentially continuous with childhood and adulthood