Flashcards in Chapter 3 Psychology 175.102 Deck (59):
Basic units of the nervous system
Transmit information from the sensory cells called receptors to the brain.
Nerve cells that connect other neurons with one another.
Transmit commands from interneurons to the glands and muscles of the body.
Anatomy of a neuron
Neurotransmitter that can excite nearly every neuron in the nervous system
Neurotransmitter that play an inhibitory role.
Neurotransmitter involved in thought, feeling, motivation, and behaviour
Neurotransmitter involved in regulation of mood, sleep, eating, arousal and pain.
Neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory.
Neurotransmitter that elevates mood and reduces pain.
A collection of glands that secrete chemicals, called hormones, directly into the bloodstream.
An oval structure in the brain often called the master gland because it stimulates and regulates other glands
Located in the neck, releases hormones that control growth and metabolism
Located in the kidneys. Secretes adrenaline and other hormones during emergencies.
Located near the stomach, produces hormones that control blood-sugar levels
Glands that influence sexual development and behaviour.
Male hormone of the gonads
Female hormone of the gonads
Central nervous system
Consists of brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
Consists of neurons that convey messages to and from the CNS.
Somatic nervous system & Autonomic nervous system
Somatic nervous system
Transmits sensory information to the central nervous system and carries out its commands
Autonomic nervous system
Conveys information to and from internal bodily structures that carry out basic life support such as digestion and respiration.
Includes Sympathetic nervous system & Parasympathetic nervous system.
Sympathetic nervous system
Activated in response to threats.
Parasympathetic nervous system
Supports the more mundane activities such as regulating blood-sugar, saliva, and eliminating wastes.
Three parts of the Brain
Medulla oblongata (medulla)
Parts of reticular formation
The extension of the spinal cord to the brain. Essential to life, controlling vital functions such as heartbeat, circulation and respiration
Large structure at back of brain involved in movement as well as other functions.
Major function is to control consciousness, regulate arousal levels and modulate the activity of neurons throughout the CNS
Involved in respiration, movement, sleep, waking and dreaming
Helps coordinate movement patterns, sleep and arousal
Includes structures involved in vision and hearing
Includes parts of the reticular formation and other neural structures. Related to movement.
Involved in complex sensory, emotional, cognitive and behavioural processes. Consists of the hypothalamus thalamus, and cerebrum.
Help regulate behaviours ranging from eating and sleeping to sexual activity emotional experience
Processes sensory information as it arrives and transmits this information to the higher brain centres.
Diverse functions including emotion, motivation, learning and memory
Involved in many emotional processes especially learning and remembering emotionally significant events
Particularly important for storing new information in memory so that the person can later consciously remember it.
Includes the putem and caudate nucleus involved in movement and judgement that require conscious thought
Cerebral cortex includes ...
Association areas, which are involved in complex mental processes such as perception and thinking
Primary areas, which usually process raw sensory data
Specialised for vision
Involved in several functions including the sense of touch, detecting movement in the environment, locating objects in space and experiencing one's own body as it moves through space
Different sections of the somatosensory cortex receive information from different parts of the body
Involved in a number of functions including movement, attention, planning, social skills, abstract thinking, memory and some aspects of personality
Through its projections to the basal ganglia, cerebellum and spinal cord, the motor cortex initiates voluntary movement
Located in the left frontal lobe at the base of the motor cortex, is specialised for movement of the mouth and tongue necessary for speech production. It also plays a pivotal role in the use and understanding of grammar
Particularly important in audition and language, although they have other functions as well
Located in the left temporal lobe, is important in language comprehension. Damage to Wernick's area may produce Wernick's aphasia, characterised by difficulty understanding what words and sentences mean
Joins the two hemispheres of the brain.
The left hemisphere is more verbal and analytic
The right hemisphere is specialised for non-linguistic functions
The gene is the unit of hereditary transmission
Strands of paired DNA that spiral around each other. Human cells have 46 chromosomes, except sperm cells in males and egg cells in females, each of which has 23.
Degree of the relatedness
The probability of sharing genes among relatives
Monozygotic twins developed from the union of the same sperm and egg. They share the same genetic make up so the degree of genetic relatedness is 1.0.
Dizygotic twins develop from the union of two sperm with two separate eggs. Like other siblings the degree of relatedness is .5