Chapter 3 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

175.102 Psychology as a Natural Science > Chapter 3 Psychology 175.102 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Psychology 175.102 Deck (59):
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Neurons

Basic units of the nervous system

1

Sensory neurons

Transmit information from the sensory cells called receptors to the brain.

2

Interneurons

Nerve cells that connect other neurons with one another.

3

Motor neurons

Transmit commands from interneurons to the glands and muscles of the body.

4

Anatomy of a neuron

Dendrites
Cell body
Axon
Myelin sheath
Terminal buttons
Synapses

5

Glutamate

Neurotransmitter that can excite nearly every neuron in the nervous system

6

GABA

Neurotransmitter that play an inhibitory role.

7

Dopamine

Neurotransmitter involved in thought, feeling, motivation, and behaviour

8

Serotonin

Neurotransmitter involved in regulation of mood, sleep, eating, arousal and pain.

9

Acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory.

10

Endorphins

Neurotransmitter that elevates mood and reduces pain.

11

Endocrine system

A collection of glands that secrete chemicals, called hormones, directly into the bloodstream.

12

Pituitary gland

An oval structure in the brain often called the master gland because it stimulates and regulates other glands

13

Thyroid gland

Located in the neck, releases hormones that control growth and metabolism

14

Adrenal gland

Located in the kidneys. Secretes adrenaline and other hormones during emergencies.

15

Pancreas

Located near the stomach, produces hormones that control blood-sugar levels

16

Gonads

Glands that influence sexual development and behaviour.

17

Testosterone

Male hormone of the gonads

18

Estrogens

Female hormone of the gonads

19

Central nervous system

Consists of brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral nervous system

Consists of neurons that convey messages to and from the CNS.
Somatic nervous system & Autonomic nervous system

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Somatic nervous system

Transmits sensory information to the central nervous system and carries out its commands

22

Autonomic nervous system

Conveys information to and from internal bodily structures that carry out basic life support such as digestion and respiration.
Includes Sympathetic nervous system & Parasympathetic nervous system.

23

Sympathetic nervous system

Activated in response to threats.

24

Parasympathetic nervous system

Supports the more mundane activities such as regulating blood-sugar, saliva, and eliminating wastes.

25

Three parts of the Brain

1. Hindbrain
2. Midbrain
3. Forebrain

26

Hindbrain

Medulla oblongata (medulla)
Cerebellum
Parts of reticular formation
Pons

27

Medulla

The extension of the spinal cord to the brain. Essential to life, controlling vital functions such as heartbeat, circulation and respiration

28

Cerebellum

Large structure at back of brain involved in movement as well as other functions.

29

Reticular formation

Major function is to control consciousness, regulate arousal levels and modulate the activity of neurons throughout the CNS

30

Pons

Involved in respiration, movement, sleep, waking and dreaming

31

Midbrain

Helps coordinate movement patterns, sleep and arousal

32

Tectum

Includes structures involved in vision and hearing

33

Tegmentum

Includes parts of the reticular formation and other neural structures. Related to movement.

34

Forebrain

Involved in complex sensory, emotional, cognitive and behavioural processes. Consists of the hypothalamus thalamus, and cerebrum.

35

Hypothalamus

Help regulate behaviours ranging from eating and sleeping to sexual activity emotional experience

36

Thalamus

Processes sensory information as it arrives and transmits this information to the higher brain centres.

37

Limbic system

Diverse functions including emotion, motivation, learning and memory

38

Amygdala

Involved in many emotional processes especially learning and remembering emotionally significant events

39

Hippocampus

Particularly important for storing new information in memory so that the person can later consciously remember it.

40

Basal ganglia

Includes the putem and caudate nucleus involved in movement and judgement that require conscious thought

41

Cerebral cortex includes ...

Frontal lobes
Association areas, which are involved in complex mental processes such as perception and thinking
Temporal lobes
Primary areas, which usually process raw sensory data
Occipital lobes
Parietal lobes

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Occipital lobes

Specialised for vision

43

Parietal lobes

Involved in several functions including the sense of touch, detecting movement in the environment, locating objects in space and experiencing one's own body as it moves through space

44

Somatosensory cortex

Different sections of the somatosensory cortex receive information from different parts of the body

45

Frontal lobes

Involved in a number of functions including movement, attention, planning, social skills, abstract thinking, memory and some aspects of personality

46

Motor cortex

Through its projections to the basal ganglia, cerebellum and spinal cord, the motor cortex initiates voluntary movement

47

Broca's area

Located in the left frontal lobe at the base of the motor cortex, is specialised for movement of the mouth and tongue necessary for speech production. It also plays a pivotal role in the use and understanding of grammar

48

Temporal lobes

Particularly important in audition and language, although they have other functions as well

49

Wernicke's area

Located in the left temporal lobe, is important in language comprehension. Damage to Wernick's area may produce Wernick's aphasia, characterised by difficulty understanding what words and sentences mean

50

Corpus callosum

Joins the two hemispheres of the brain.

51

Left hemisphere

The left hemisphere is more verbal and analytic

52

Right hemisphere

The right hemisphere is specialised for non-linguistic functions

53

Gene

The gene is the unit of hereditary transmission

54

Chromosomes

Strands of paired DNA that spiral around each other. Human cells have 46 chromosomes, except sperm cells in males and egg cells in females, each of which has 23.

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Degree of the relatedness

The probability of sharing genes among relatives

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Monozygotic twins

Monozygotic twins developed from the union of the same sperm and egg. They share the same genetic make up so the degree of genetic relatedness is 1.0.

57

Dizygotic twins

Dizygotic twins develop from the union of two sperm with two separate eggs. Like other siblings the degree of relatedness is .5

58

Heritability coefficient

Quantifies the extent to which variation in the trait across individuals can be accounted for by genetic variation.