Chapter 3 Psychology 175.102 Flashcards Preview

175.102 Psychology as a Natural Science > Chapter 3 Psychology 175.102 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Psychology 175.102 Deck (59)
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Neurons

Basic units of the nervous system

1

Sensory neurons

Transmit information from the sensory cells called receptors to the brain.

2

Interneurons

Nerve cells that connect other neurons with one another.

3

Motor neurons

Transmit commands from interneurons to the glands and muscles of the body.

4

Anatomy of a neuron

Dendrites
Cell body
Axon
Myelin sheath
Terminal buttons
Synapses

5

Glutamate

Neurotransmitter that can excite nearly every neuron in the nervous system

6

GABA

Neurotransmitter that play an inhibitory role.

7

Dopamine

Neurotransmitter involved in thought, feeling, motivation, and behaviour

8

Serotonin

Neurotransmitter involved in regulation of mood, sleep, eating, arousal and pain.

9

Acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory.

10

Endorphins

Neurotransmitter that elevates mood and reduces pain.

11

Endocrine system

A collection of glands that secrete chemicals, called hormones, directly into the bloodstream.

12

Pituitary gland

An oval structure in the brain often called the master gland because it stimulates and regulates other glands

13

Thyroid gland

Located in the neck, releases hormones that control growth and metabolism

14

Adrenal gland

Located in the kidneys. Secretes adrenaline and other hormones during emergencies.

15

Pancreas

Located near the stomach, produces hormones that control blood-sugar levels

16

Gonads

Glands that influence sexual development and behaviour.

17

Testosterone

Male hormone of the gonads

18

Estrogens

Female hormone of the gonads

19

Central nervous system

Consists of brain and spinal cord

20

Peripheral nervous system

Consists of neurons that convey messages to and from the CNS.
Somatic nervous system & Autonomic nervous system

21

Somatic nervous system

Transmits sensory information to the central nervous system and carries out its commands

22

Autonomic nervous system

Conveys information to and from internal bodily structures that carry out basic life support such as digestion and respiration.
Includes Sympathetic nervous system & Parasympathetic nervous system.

23

Sympathetic nervous system

Activated in response to threats.

24

Parasympathetic nervous system

Supports the more mundane activities such as regulating blood-sugar, saliva, and eliminating wastes.

25

Three parts of the Brain

1. Hindbrain
2. Midbrain
3. Forebrain

26

Hindbrain

Medulla oblongata (medulla)
Cerebellum
Parts of reticular formation
Pons

27

Medulla

The extension of the spinal cord to the brain. Essential to life, controlling vital functions such as heartbeat, circulation and respiration

28

Cerebellum

Large structure at back of brain involved in movement as well as other functions.

29

Reticular formation

Major function is to control consciousness, regulate arousal levels and modulate the activity of neurons throughout the CNS