Chapter 13 Flashcards Preview

Emergency Medical Technician book > Chapter 13 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (51):
1

acidosis

The buildup of excess acid in the blood or body tissues that results from a primary illness

2

adventitious breath sounds

Abnormal breaths sounds such as wheezes, rhonchi, and rales

3

alkalosis

The buildup of excess base (lack of acids) in the body fluids

4

allergen

A substance that causes an allergic reaction

5

anaphylaxis (anaphylactic shock)

An extreme, life-threatening systemic allergic reaction that may include shock and respiratory failure

6

asthma

An acute spasm of the smaller air passages, called bronchioles, associated with excessive mucus production and with swelling of the mucous lining of the respiratory passages

7

atelectasis

Collapse of the alveolar air spaces of the lungs

8

bronchial breath sounds

Normal breath sounds made by air moving through the bronchi

9

bronchiolitis

Inflammation of the bronchioles that usually occurs in children younger than 2 years and is often caused by the respiratory syncytial virus

10

bronchitis

An acute or chronic inflammation of the lung that may damage lung tissue; usually associated with cough and production of sputum and, depending on its cause, sometimes fever

11

carbon dioxide retention

A condition characterized by a chronically high blood level of carbon dioxide in which the respiratory center no longer responds to high blood levels of carbon dioxide

12

carbon monoxide

An odorless, highly poisonous gas that results from incomplete oxidation of carbon in combustion

13

chronic bronchitis

Irritation of the major lung passageways from infectious disease or irritants such as smoke

14

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

A slow process of dilation and disruption of the airways and alveoli caused by chronic bronchial obstruction

15

common cold

A viral infection usually associated with swollen nasal mucous membranes and the production of fluid from the sinuses and nose

16

croup

An inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory system that may cause a partial airway obstruction and is characterized by a barking cough; usually seen in children

17

diphtheria

An infectious disease in which a membrane forms, lining pharynx; this lining can severely obstruct the passage of air into the larynx

18

dyspnea

Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing

19

embolus

A blood clot or other substance in the circulatory system that travels to a blood vessel where it causes a blockage

20

emphysema

A disease of the lungs in which there is extreme dilation and eventual destruction of the pulmonary alveoli with poor exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide; it is one form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

21

epidemic

Occurs when new cases of a disease occur in a human population and substantially exceed what is "expected" based on recent experience

22

epiglottitis

A disease in which the epiglottis becomes inflamed and enlarged and may cause an upper airway obstruction

23

hay fever

An allergic response usually to outdoor airborne allergens such as pollen or sometimes indoor allergens such as dust mites or pet dander; also called allergic rhinitis

24

hyperventilation

Rapid or deep breathing that lowers the blood carbon dioxide level below normal

25

hyperventilation syndrome (panic attack)

This syndrome occurs in the absence of other physical problems. The respirations of a person who is experiencing hyperventilation syndrome may be as high as 40 shallow breaths/min or as low as only 20 very deep breaths/min.

26

hypoxia

A condition in which the body's cells and tissues do not have enough oxygen

27

hypoxic drive

Backup system to control respirations when oxygen levels fall

28

influenza type A

Virus that has crossed the animal/human barrier and has infected humans, recently reaching a pandemic level with the H1N1 strain

29

meningococcal meningitis

An inflammation of the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord; can be highly contagious

30

metered-dose inhaler (MDI)

A miniature spray canister used to direct medications through the mouth and into the lungs

31

methicillin-resistant Stphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

A bacterium that can cause infections in different parts of the body; it is transmitted by different routes, including the respiratory route and is particularly dangerous because of its resistance to methicillin

32

oxygenation

The process of delivering oxygen to the blood

33

pandemic

An outbreak that occurs on a global scale

34

pertussis (whooping cough)

An airborne bacterial infection that affects mostly children younger than 6 years. Patients will be feverish and exhibit a "whoop" sound on inspiration after a coughing attack; highly contagious through droplet infection

35

pleural effusion

A collection of fluid between the lung and chest wall that may compress the lung

36

pleuritic chest pain

Sharp, stabbing pain in the chest that is worsened by a deep breath or other chest wall movement; often caused by inflammation or irritation of the pleura

37

pneumonia

An infectious disease of the lung that damages lung tissue

38

pneumonitis

Inflammation of the lung

39

pneumothorax

A partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space

40

pulmonary edema

A buildup of fluid in the lungs, usually as a result of congestive heart failure

41

pulmonary embolism

A blood clot that breaks off from a large vein and travels to the blood vessels of the lung, causing obstruction of blood flow

42

rales

Crackling, rattling breath sounds signaling fluid in the air spaces of the lungs

43

respiration

The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

44

respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

A virus that causes an infection of the lungs and breathing passages; can lead to other serious illnesses that affect the lungs or heart, such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. RSV is highly contagious and spread through droplets.

45

rhonchi

Coarse breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the airways

46

severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

Potentially life-threatening viral infection that usually starts with flulike symptoms

47

small-volume nebulizer

A respiratory device that holds liquid medicine that is turned into a fine mist. The patient inhales the medication into the airways and lungs as a treatment for conditions like asthma

48

stridor

A harsh, high-pitched, barking inspiratory sound often heard in acute laryngeal (upper airway) obstruction

49

tuberculosis (TB)

A disease that can lay dormant in a person's lungs for decades, then reactivate; many strains are resistant to many antibiotics. TB is spread by cough.

50

vesicular breath sounds

Normal breath sounds made by air moving in and out of the alveoli

51

wheezing

A high-pitched, whistling breath sound, characteristically heard on expiration in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease