Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

Emergency Medical Technician book > Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (74):
1

aerobic metabolism

Metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of oxygen

2

agonal gasps

Occasional, gasping breaths that occur after the heart has stopped

3

airway

The upper airway tract or the passage above the larynx, which includes the nose, mouth, and throat

4

alveolar ventilation

The volume of air that reaches the alveoli. It is determined by subtracting the amount of dead space air from the tidal volume.

5

American Standard System

A safety system for large oxygen cylinders, designed to prevent the accidental attachment of a regulator to a cylinder containing the wrong type of gas

6

anaerobic metabolism

The metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen; the principle product is lactic acid

7

apnea

Absence of spontaneous breathing

8

aspiration

In the context of airway, the introduction of vomitus or other foreign material into the lungs

9

ataxic respirations

Irregular, ineffective respirations that may or may not have an identifiable pattern

10

automatic transport ventilator (ATV)

A ventilation device attached to a control box that allows the variables of ventilation to be set. It frees the EMT to perform other tasks while the patient is being ventilated

11

bag-mask device

A device with a one-way valve and a face mask attached to a ventilation bag, when attached to a reservoir and connected to oxygen, delivers more than 90% supplemental oxygen

12

barrier device

A protective item, such as a pocket mask with a valve, that limits exposure to a patient's body fluids

13

bilateral

A body part or condition that appears on both sides of the midline

14

bronchioles

Subdivision of the smaller bronchi in the lungs; made of smooth muscle and dilate or constrict in response to various stimuli

15

carina

Point at which the trachea bifurcates (divides) into the left and right mainstem bronchi

16

chemoreceptors

Monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid and then provide feedback to the respiratory centers to modify the rate and depth of breathing based on the body's needs at any given time

17

compliance

The ability of the alveoli to expand when air is drawn in during inhalation

18

continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)

A method of ventilation used primarily in the treatment of critically ill patients with respiratory distress, can prevent the need for endotracheal intubation

19

dead space

The portion of the tidal volume that does not reach the alveoli and thus does not participate in gas exchange

20

diffusion

A process in which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

21

dyspnea

Shortness of breath

22

exhalation

The passive part of the breathing process in which the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles relax, forcing air out of the lungs

23

external respiration

The exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood cells in the pulmonary capillaries; also called pulmonary repiration

24

gag reflex

A normal reflex mechanism that causes retching; activated by touching the soft palate or the back of the throat

25

gastric distention

A condition in which air fills the stomach, often as a result of high volume and pressure during artificial ventilation

26

glottis

The space in between the vocal cords that is the narrowest portion of the adult's airway; also called the glottic opening

27

good air exchange

A term used to distinguish the degree of distress in a patient with a mild airway obstruction. With good air exchange, the patient is still conscious and able to cough forcefully, although wheezing may be heard.

28

head tilt-chin lift maneuver

A combination of two movements to open the airway by tilting the forehead back and lifting the chin; not used for trauma patients

29

hypercarbia

Increased carbon dioxide level in the bloodstream

30

hypoxia

A dangerous condition in which the body tissues and cells do not have enough oxygen

31

hypoxic drive

A condition in which chronically low levels of oxygen in the blood stimulate the respiratory drive; seen in patients with chronic lung diseases

32

inhalation

The active, muscular part of breathing that draws air into the airway and lungs

33

internal respiration

The exchange of gases between the blood cells and the tissues

34

intrapulmonary shunting

Bypassing of oxygen-poor blood past nonfunctional alveoli to the left side of the heart

35

jaw-thrust maneuver

Technique to open the airway by placing the fingers behind the angle of the jaw and bringing the jaw forward; used for patients who may have a cervical spine injury

36

labored breathing

Breathing that requires greater than normal effort; may be slower or faster than normal and usually requires the use of accessory muscles

37

larynx

A complex structure formed by many independent cartilaginous structures that all work together; where the upper airway ends and the lower airway begins; also called the voice box

38

manually-triggered ventilation device

A fixed flow/rate ventilation device that delivers a breath every time its button is pushed; also referred to as a flow-restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device

39

mediastinum

Space within the chest that contains the heart, major blood vessels, vagus nerve, trachea, major bronchi, and esophagus; located between the two lungs

40

metabolism (cellular respiration)

The biochemical processes that result in production of energy from nutrients within the cells

41

mild airway obstruction

Occurs when a foreign body partially obstructs the patient's airway. The patient is able to move adequate amounts of air, but also experiences some degree of respiratory distress.

42

minute ventilation

The volume of air moved through the lungs in 1 minute minus the dead space; calculated by multiplying tidal volume (minus dead space) and respiratory rate; also referred to as minute volume

43

nasal cannula

An oxygen-delivery device in which oxygen flows through two small, tubelike prongs that fit into the patient's nostrils; delivers 24% to 44% supplemental oxygen, depending on the flow rate

44

nasopharyngeal (nasal) airway

Airway adjunct inserted into the nostril of an unresponsive patient, or a patient with an altered level of consciousness who is unable to maintain airway patency independently

45

nasopharynx

The nasal cavity; formed by the union of facial bones and protects the respiratory tract from contaminants

46

nonrebreathing mask

A combination mask and reservoir bag system that is the preferred way to give oxygen in the prehospital setting; delivers up to 90% inspired oxygen and prevents inhaling the exhaled gases (carbon dioxide)

47

oropharyngeal (oral) airway

Airway adjunct inserted into the mouth of an unresponsive patient to keep the tongue from blocking the upper airway and to facilitate suctioning the airway, if necessary.

48

oropharynx

Forms the posterior portion of the oral cavity, which is bordered superiorly by the hard and soft palates, laterally by the cheeks, and inferiorly by the tongue

49

oxygenation

The process of delivering oxygen to the blood by diffusion from the alveoli following inhalation into the lungs

50

parietal pleura

Thin membrane that lines the chest cavity

51

partial pressure

The term used to describe the amount of gas in air or dissolved in fluid, such as blood

52

patent

Open, clear of obstruction

53

phrenic nerve

Nerve that innervates the diaphragm; necessary for adequate breathing to occur

54

pin-indexing system

A system established for portable cylinders to ensure that a regulator is not connected to a cylinder containing the wrong type of gas

55

pneumothorax

A partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space

56

poor air exchange

A term used to describe the degree of distress in a patient with a mild airway obstruction. With poor air exchange, the patient often has a weak, ineffective cough, increased difficulty breathing, or possible cyanosis and may produce a high-pitched noise during inhalation (stridor).

57

positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)

Mechanical maintenance of pressure in the airway at the end of expiration to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs

58

pulse oximetry

An assessment tool that measures oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the capillary beds

59

recovery position

A side-lying position used to maintain a clear airway in unconscious patients without injuries who are breathing adequately

60

residual volume

The air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration

61

respiration

The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide

62

retractions

Movements in which the skin pulls in around the ribs during respiration

63

severe airway obstruction

Occurs when a foreign body completely obstructs the patient's airway. Patients cannot breathe, talk or cough.

64

stoma

An opening through the skin and into an organ or other structure; a stoma in the neck connects the trachea directly to the skin

65

surfectant

A liquid protein substance that coats the alveoli in the lungs, decreases alveolar surface tension, and keeps the alveoli expanded; a low level in a premature infant contributes to respiratory distress syndrome

66

tension pneumothorax

A life-threatening collection of air within the pleural space; the volume and pressure have both collapsed the involved lung and caused a shift of the mediastinal structures to the opposite side

67

tidal volume

The amount of air (in mL) that is moved in or out of the lungs during one breath

68

tonsil tips

Large, semirigid suction tips recommended for suctioning the pharynx; also called Yankauer tips

69

tracheostomy

Surgical opening into the trachea

70

ventilation

Exchange of air between the lungs and the environment, spontaneously by the patient or with assistance from another person, such as an EMT

71

visceral pleura

Thin membrane that covers the lungs

72

vital capacity

The amount of air that can be forcibly expelled from the lungs after breathing in as deeply as possible

73

vocal cords

Thin white bands of tough muscular tissue that are lateral borders of the glottis and serve as the primary center for speech production

74

wheezing

The production of whistling sounds during expiration such as occurs in asthma and bronchiolitis