Chapter 39 Flashcards Preview

Emergency Medical Technician book > Chapter 39 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 39 Deck (64):
1

alpha

A type of energy that is emitted from a strong radiologic source; it is the least harmful penetrating type of radiation and cannot travel fast or through most objects

2

anthrax

A disease caused by deadly bacteria (Bacillus anthracis) that lay dormant in a spore (protective shell); the germ is released from the spore when exposed to the optimal temperature and moisture. The routes of entry are inhalation, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal (from consuming food that contains spores).

3

aging

Aging is the process by which the temporary bond between the organophosphate and acetylcholinesterase undergoes hydrolysis, resulting in a permanent covalent bond

4

bacteria

Microorganisms that reproduce by binary fission. These single-cell creatures reproduce rapidly. Some can form spores (encysted variants) when environmental conditions are harsh.

5

beta

A type of energy that is emitted from a strong radiologic source; is slightly more penetrating than alpha and requires a layer of clothing to stop it

6

B-NICE

A memory device to recall the types of weapons of mass destruction: biologic, nuclear, incendiary, chemical, and explosive

7

botulinum

Produced by bacteria, this is a very potent neurotoxin. When introduced into the body, this neurotoxin affects the nervous system's ability to function and causes botulism.

8

buboes

Enlarged lymph nodes (up to the size of a tennis ball) that were characteristic in people infected with the bubonic plague

9

bubonic plague

An epidemic that spread throughout Europe in the Middle Ages, causing more than 25 million deaths, also called the Black Death; transmitted by infected fleas and characterized by acute malaise, fever, and the formation of tender, enlarged, inflamed lymph nodes that appear as lesions, called buboes

10

chlorine (CL)

The first chemical agent ever used in warfare. It has a distinct odor of bleach and creates a green haze when released as a gas. Initially it produces upper airway irritation and a choking sensation.

11

contact hazard

A hazardous agent that gives off very little or no vapors; the skin is the primary route for this type of chemical to enter the body; also called a skin hazard

12

contagious

An infectious disease that can be transmitted to another; communicable. A person who has s contagious disease and can transmit it to another person might be considered contagious.

13

covert

An act in which the public safety community generally has no prior knowledge of the time, location, or nature of the attack

14

cross-contamination

Occurs when a person is contaminated by an agent as a result of coming into contact with another contaminated person

15

cyanide

An agent that affects the body's ability to use oxygen. It is a colorless gas that has an odor similar to almonds. The effects begin on the cellular level and are very rapidly seen at the organ and system levels.

16

decay

A natural process in which a material that is unstable attempts to stabilize itself by changing its structure

17

dirty bomb

Name given to a bomb that is used as a radiologic dispersal device

18

dissemination

The means by which a terrorist will spread a disease; for example, by poisoning the water supply or aerosolizing the agent into the air or ventilation system of a building

19

DuoDote Auto-Injector

A nerve agent antidote kit containing atropine and pralidoxime chloride; delivered as a single dose through one needle

20

G agents

Early nerve agents that were developed by German scientists in the period after World War I and into World War II. There are three such agents: sarin, soman, and tabun.

21

gamma (x-ray)

A type of energy that is emitted from a strong radiologic source that is far faster and stronger than alpha and beta rays. These rays easily penetrate through the human body and require lead or several inches of concrete to prevent penetration.

22

incubation

Th period of time from a person being exposed to a disease to the time when symptoms begin

23

international terrorism

Terrorism that is carried out by people in a country other than their own; also known as cross-border terrorism

24

ionizing radiation

Energy that is emitted in the form of rays, or particles

25

LD50

The amount of an agent or substance that will kill 50% of people who are exposed to this level

26

Lewisite (L)

A blistering agent that has a rapid onset of symptoms and produces immediate, intense pain and discomfort on contact

27

lymph nodes

The area of the lymphatic system where infection-fighting cells are housed

28

lymphatic system

A passive circulatory system that transports a plasmalike liquid called lymph, a thin fluid that bathes the tissues of the body

29

Mark 1 Nerve Agent Antidote Kit (NAAK)

A nerve agent antidote kit containing two auto-injectors containing atropine and pralidoxime chloride

30

miosis

Excessively constricted pupil; often bilateral after exposure to nerve agents

31

mutagen

A substance that mutates, damages, and changes the structure of DNA in the body's cells

32

nerve agents

A class of chemical called organophosphates; they function by blocking an essential enzyme in the nervous system, which causes the body's organs to become overstimulated and burn out

33

neurotoxins

Biologic agents that are the most deadly substances known to humans; they include botulinum toxin and ricin

34

neutron radiation

The type of energy that is emitted from a strong radiologic source; neutron particles are among the most powerful forms of radiation. Neutrons easily penetrate through lead and require several feet of concrete to stop them.

35

off-gassing

The emitting of an agent after exposure, for example from a person's clothes that have been exposed to the agent

36

persistency

Term used to describe how long a chemical agent will stay on a surface before it evaporates

37

phosgene

A pulmonary agent that is a product of combustion, such as might be produced in a fire at a textile factory or house or from metalwork or burning Freon. Phosgene is a very potent agent that has a delayed onset of symptoms, usually hours.

38

phosgene oxime (CX)

A blistering agent that has a rapid onset of symptoms and produces immediate, intense pain and discomfort on contact

39

pneumonic plague

A lung infection, also known as plague pneumonia, that is the result of inhalation of plague-causing bacteria

40

points of distribution (PODs)

Existing facilities that are established in a time of need for the mass distribution of antibiotics, antidotes, vaccinations, and other medications and supplies

41

primary blast injury

Injuries caused by an explosive pressure wave on the hollow organs of the body

42

pulmonary blast injuries

Pulmonary trauma resulting from short-range exposure to the detonation of high energy explosives

43

radioactive material

Any material that emits radiation

44

radiologic dispersal device (RDD)

Any container that is designed to disperse radioactive material

45

ricin

A neurotoxin derived from mash that is left from the castor bean; causes pulmonary edema and respiratory and circulatory failure leading to death

46

route of exposure

The manner by which a toxic substance enters the body

47

sarin (GB)

A nerve agent that is one of the G agents; a highly volatile colorless and odorless liquid that turns from liquid to gas within seconds to minutes at room temperature

48

secondary blast injury

A penetrating or nonpenetrating injury caused by ordnance projectiles or secondary missiles

49

secondary device

An additional explosive used by terrorists, set to explode after the initial bomb

50

smallpox

A highly contagious disease; it is most contagious when blisters begin to form

51

soman (GD)

A nerve agent that is one of the G agents; twice as persistent as sarin and five times as lethal; it has a friuty odor, as a result of the type of alcohol used in the agent, and is a contact an an inhalation hazard that can enter the body through skin absorption and through the respiratory tract

52

Special Atomic Demolition Munitions (SADM)

Small suitcase-sized nuclear weapons that were designed to destroy individual targets, such as important buildings, bridges, tunnels, and large ships

53

sulfur mustard (H)

A vesicant; it is a brownish, yellowish oily substance that is generally considered very persistent; has the distinct smell of garlic or mustard and, when released, is quickly absorbed into the skin and/or mucous membranes and begins an irreversible process of damaging the cells

54

syndromic surveillance

The monitoring, usually by local or state health departments, of patients presenting to emergency departments and alternative care facilities, the recording of EMS call volume, and the use of over-the-counter medications

55

tabun (GA)

A nerve agent that is one of the G agents; is 36 times more persistent than sarin and approximately half as lethal; has a fruity smell and is unique because the components used to manufacture the agent are easy to acquire and the agent is easy to manufacture

56

tertiary blast injury

An injury from whole body displacement and subsequent traumatic impact with environmental objects

57

V agent (VX)

One of the G agents; it is a clear oily agent that has no odor and looks like baby oil; more than 100 times more lethal than sarin and is extremely persistent

58

vapor hazard

An agent that enters the body through the respiratory tract

59

viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF)

A group of diseases caused by viruses that include the Ebola, Rift Valley, and yellow fevers, among others. This group of viruses causes the blood in the body to seep out from the tissues and blood vessels.

60

viruses

Germs that require a living host to multiply and survive

61

volatility

A term used to describe how long a chemical agent will stay on a surface before it evaporates

62

weapon of mass casualty (WMC)

Any agent designed to bring about mass death, casualties, and/or massive damage to property and infrastructure (bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports); also known as a weapon of mass destruction (WMD)

63

weapon of mass destruction (WMD)

Any agent designed to bring about mass death, casualties, and/or massive damage to property and infrastructure (bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports); also known as a weapon of mass casualty (WMC)

64

weaponization

The creation of a weapon from a biologic agent generally found in nature and that causes disease; the agent is cultivated, synthesize, and/or mutated to maximize the target population's exposure to the germ