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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (30):
1

acute stress reactions

Reaction to stress that occurs during a stressful situation

2

airborne transmission

The spread of an organism in aerosol form

3

bloodborne pathogens

Pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

4

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The primary federal agency that conducts and supports public health activities in the United States. The CDC is part of the US Department of Health and Human Services.

5

communicable disease

A disease that can be spread from one person or species to another

6

contamination

The presence of infectious organisms on or in objects such as dressings, water, food, needles, wounds, or a patient's body

7

cover and concealment

The tactical use of an impenetrable barrier for protection

8

critical incident stress management (CISM)

A process that confronts the responses to critical incidents and defuses them, directing the emergency services personnel toward physical and emotional equilibrium

9

cumulative stress reactions

Prolonged or excessive stress

10

delayed stress reactions

Reaction to stress that occurs after a stressful situation

11

designated officer

The individual in the department who is charged with the responsibility of managing exposures and infection control issues

12

direct contact

Exposure or transmission of a communicable disease from one person to another by physical contact

13

exposure

A situation in which a person has had contact with blood, body fluids, tissues, or airborne particles in a manner that suggests disease transmission may occur

14

foodborne transmission

The contamination of food or water with an organism that can cause disease

15

general adaptation syndrome

The body's response to stress that begins with an alarm response, followed by a stage of reaction and resistance, and then recovery or, if the stress is prolonged, exhaustion

16

hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver, usually caused by a viral infection, that causes fever, loss of appetite, jaundice, fatigue, and altered liver function

17

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by HIV, which damages the cells in the body's immune system so that the body is unable to fight infection or certain cancers

18

host

The organism or individual that is attacked by the infecting agent

19

immune

The body's ability to protect itself from acquiring a disease

20

indirect contact

Exposure or transmission of disease from one person to another by contact with a contaminated object

21

infection

The abnormal invasion of a host or host tissues by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, or parasites, with or without signs or symptoms of disease

22

infection control

Procedures to reduce transmission of infection among patients and health care personnel

23

infectious disease

A medical condition caused by the growth and spread of small, harmful organisms within the body

24

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

The federal regulatory compliance agency that develops, publishes, and enforces guidelines concerning safety in the workplace

25

pathogen

A microorganism that is capable of causing disease in a susceptible host

26

personal protective equipment (PPE)

Protective equipment that OSHA requires to be made available to the EMT. IN the case of infection risk, PPE blocks entry of an organism into the body.

27

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

A delayed stress reaction to a prior incident. This delayed reaction is often the result of one or more unresolved issues concerning the incident.

28

transmission

The way in which an infectious disease is spread: contact, airborne, by vehicles, or by vectors

29

standard precautions

Protective measures that have traditionally been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for use in dealing with objects, blood, body fluids, or other potential exposure risks of communicable disease

30

vector-borne transmission

The use of an animal to spread an organism from one person or place to another