Chapter 14 : Europe After WWI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 : Europe After WWI Deck (15):

What caused WWI

Rivalry between European countries
Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir of the Austrian throne) was shot dead in Sarajevo in Bosnia.


Allies and central powers in WWI

Allies : Britain, France, Russia, Italy and USA
Central powers : Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, turkey


Where was WWI fought

Western front : ran from Belgian coast through France to the Swiss border
Eastern front : ran from Baltic to Black Sea
Border between Italy and Austria


How did WWI end

Over a million American troops came to the western front in 1918
11 am 11 November 1918 Germany signed an armistice to end the war


The big three

American prime minister : Wilson
British prime minister : Lloyd George
French prime minister : Clemenceau


President Wilson

Treaty built on revenge would not work
Nations should keep a small army only for defence
Countries shouldn't make secret treaties with each other
People of one race and language should set up their own governments (self-determination)
League of Nations to keep the world at peace
These were ignored



Remembered when Germany defeated France and wanted to make sure this wouldn't happen again


Treaty of Versailles

Signed 28 June 1919 in the Hall of Mirrors Versailles
Germany had to sign a war guilt clause admitting to starting the war
Germany had to pay £6600 million in reparations
Territories of Alsace-Lorraine were returned to France
Germany lost land to let Poland have a coastline, Denmark and Belgium.
1/10 Germany's population were now living in foreign countries.
German army was reduced to 100,000 soldiers.
German troops were forbidden from being stationed at the border between Germany, France and Belgium.


Faults of treaty of Versailles

Was a dictated peace as Germany was not there so they didn't have to accept its terms
The German government couldn't pay the reparations
Germany resented the war guilt clause
Newly created countries had people of different races, religions, and languages leading to tension


The League of Nations

American government refused to join because they didn't want to be drawn into anymore European conflict
Failed to prevent the outbreak of another war in 1939



People choose their own government by voting in an election.
They are allowed to express their opinions and form political parties



Country is ruled by a single leader or party.
Can pass laws without permission of parliament.
Opposition political parties are banned.


Communist/Socialist dictatorships

Believes the wealth of the country should be in the hands of the government.
The government controls all land and industry.
First one was established in Russia in 1917 after a revolution when the romanovs were overthrown.
Vladimir Lenin came to power, died 1924 and Joseph Stalin came to power. Killed anyone that went against him.
KGB were the secret police.
Millions died in the gulags (prison camps)
Millions starved
Industrial policy transformed the Soviet Union


Facist dictatorships

Encourages national pride and to put the interest of the state before your own freedom.
Believed in private ownership of land and industries and businesses.
Believe their nation is superior to all other


Reasons for the rise of fascism

Some countries were dissatisfied with the treaty of Versailles
Unemployment and inflation
Fear of communism.
Democratic governments put their trust in fascist dictators who promise to restore national pride and power