Flashcards in Chapter 14 : Europe After WWI Deck (15):
What caused WWI
Rivalry between European countries
Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir of the Austrian throne) was shot dead in Sarajevo in Bosnia.
Allies and central powers in WWI
Allies : Britain, France, Russia, Italy and USA
Central powers : Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, turkey
Where was WWI fought
Western front : ran from Belgian coast through France to the Swiss border
Eastern front : ran from Baltic to Black Sea
Border between Italy and Austria
How did WWI end
Over a million American troops came to the western front in 1918
11 am 11 November 1918 Germany signed an armistice to end the war
The big three
American prime minister : Wilson
British prime minister : Lloyd George
French prime minister : Clemenceau
Treaty built on revenge would not work
Nations should keep a small army only for defence
Countries shouldn't make secret treaties with each other
People of one race and language should set up their own governments (self-determination)
League of Nations to keep the world at peace
These were ignored
Remembered when Germany defeated France and wanted to make sure this wouldn't happen again
Treaty of Versailles
Signed 28 June 1919 in the Hall of Mirrors Versailles
Germany had to sign a war guilt clause admitting to starting the war
Germany had to pay £6600 million in reparations
Territories of Alsace-Lorraine were returned to France
Germany lost land to let Poland have a coastline, Denmark and Belgium.
1/10 Germany's population were now living in foreign countries.
German army was reduced to 100,000 soldiers.
German troops were forbidden from being stationed at the border between Germany, France and Belgium.
Faults of treaty of Versailles
Was a dictated peace as Germany was not there so they didn't have to accept its terms
The German government couldn't pay the reparations
Germany resented the war guilt clause
Newly created countries had people of different races, religions, and languages leading to tension
The League of Nations
American government refused to join because they didn't want to be drawn into anymore European conflict
Failed to prevent the outbreak of another war in 1939
People choose their own government by voting in an election.
They are allowed to express their opinions and form political parties
Country is ruled by a single leader or party.
Can pass laws without permission of parliament.
Opposition political parties are banned.
Believes the wealth of the country should be in the hands of the government.
The government controls all land and industry.
First one was established in Russia in 1917 after a revolution when the romanovs were overthrown.
Vladimir Lenin came to power, died 1924 and Joseph Stalin came to power. Killed anyone that went against him.
KGB were the secret police.
Millions died in the gulags (prison camps)
Industrial policy transformed the Soviet Union
Encourages national pride and to put the interest of the state before your own freedom.
Believed in private ownership of land and industries and businesses.
Believe their nation is superior to all other