Chapter 6 : The Middle Ages Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 : The Middle Ages Deck (38):

What system brought stability

Feudal system


What year

500 AD to 1500 AD


Feudal system

Very organised, king was most important, he owned most land and made laws, then was the nobles and lords, then was the peasants


What did the king give

Land (fief) to rich people (nobles or lords) who supplied king with horses and soldiers for the army


What did the rich give

Land to Knights (full time soldiers)



Worked the land for lords and nobles who in return protected them, they were not allowed to leave their land without permission



Only kings and nobles lived in castles, it housed their family, soldiers and servants in attack, they defended and administered their land, acted as prison and festivals and banquets were held there


Motte and Bailey

Built from wood, on hills made from soil and rocks, the hill was the motte, the courtyard was a Bailey, surrounded by a wooden fence, had a moat surrounding the fence, we're not very protective as wood was set on fire.


Stone castles

Uncomfortable, protective, cold and damp, little windows, dark, no running water and only fires for heat, walls were covered in woollen hanging and floors had rugs to brighten it up,



Keep was the most important building, the king lived there with his family



Wooden seats and waste would fall down a chute into the moat


The great hall

Most important room, ate their meals, entertained guests, used as court for law



Used as a prison as well as a storage for food


Defending a castle

Turrets were small towers, battlements were gaps in the wall, boiling oil and quicklime were poured from the top of the castle, they had a drawbridge and a steel gate called a portculis, Barbican was a fortifies gatehouse,


Attacking a castle

Very dangerous, sometimes surrounded castle so those inside can't get out and they'll starve, battering rams tried to break the gate, mangonels hurled rocks from a catapult, rope ladders and siege towers scaled the castle walls, tunnels were dug beneath the walls to make them collapse


Lord and lady

Very privileged, had servants, ,



Lord was most important, made sure rent was paid and that Knights were ready, estate steward carried out most of these tasks, bailiffs were responsible for collecting rents and fines, Lord also acted as a judge, hosted large banquets in the great hall, ate meat and vegetables, top of the table was most important, added spices to disguise bad smell and dyed to look better, most important ate off plates, less important ate off pieces of stale bread, hunted deer, foxes, wild boar on foot or using birds of prey, e



Tough life, married by 14, father chose who she married, in charge of domestic duties, in charge of castle when Lord was gone, ensured there was enough food, oversaw salting of food, in charge of upbringing of children, send them away for foster age, relatives or noble women took the lady's children, didn't go on horseback, hunted (hawking) with birds and killed other birds or small animals, played music and chess, did embroidery, wore headdresses


Men at arms

Prepared for war, guarded day and night, archers had bow and arrows, watchmen watched the castle, footsoldiers fought with daggers and pikes, Knights were the best



Took 15 years to become fully trained, nobles, became a page at 6, leant good manners, how to read and write, acted as servants, fought using wooden swords and shields, became squire at 14, accompanied a fully trained knight, learned to properly fight, looked after Knights horse and armour, after seven years they got knightened, ceremony was an accolade, night before the ceremony was spent praying that they would be a good knight, wore white tunic, red robe and black jacket, knight knelt for his dubbing, Lord would tap him on head and shoulders with a sword and then gave him a sword, could be knightened there on the battlefield for a reward for bravery, heavy armour, was first little rings looped together known as chain mail, wore plate armour, gauntlets and a helmet


Between tournaments

Took part in tournaments, jousting, charged at each other from each side of a tilt, knock them off with a large wooden pole (lance), winner got the others horse and armour, chivalry was being loyal, brave, generous and courteous to women


The medieval manor

70% lived in manors, Lord who owned it was Lord of the manor, rented land to peasants, away from his own demense or private farm, 20-30 huts, church and Manor House, open field system was three fields, one acre strips for each field, separated by paths, peasants had separate strips, crops were rotated so soil was left to fallow which wasted land, there was common land to graze animals,


Freemen and serfs

They give crops in return for land and agree to work for three days a week, cut wood and lend oxen to the Lord, pay for water mill and must get permission to leave or get married, one tenth of the crops were given to arise priest for the church this is the tithe, in spring sow seeds of peas, beans and oats, cut grass and make hay to see livestock in winter, animals that aren't fed are killed and used for eating


Wife and family

wife grows vegetables and makes cheese and butter, makes clothes by spinning wool, wears cloth tunic, leather boots, and felt hat, wife wears woollen dress and a cloth called a wimple, live in a one room cottage, wattle and daub, thatched roof, no glass windows, hole in roof, animals live in there too and are separated by a piece of sacking, a table and stools, meals are cooked over the fire, eat porridge, bread and vegetable stew, beer,meat is eaten on special occasions,


Special occasions

Christmas : Mistletoe and holly are put up, lord invited peasants for feast, another feast at the end,
May 1 : everyone wears green, two kids dress up as king and queen, everyone dances around a cut tree, this is known as maypole,
Cockfighting and wrestling are watched, merchants come to buy and sell good once a year



Tried at the manor court of law is broken, fined and if unable to pay, an animal is placed in the pound until fine is paid,


Medieval towns

Grew close to castles, paid rent to Lord, free to travel and choose what they wanted to do, wall with battlements surrounded castle, gates were defended, gates were closed at night, towns were controlled by the Lord at the start, merchants paid Lord to hand over the power to a town council ran by the mayor, a list of rules called a charter was drawn up, paid a toll of selling goods, crowded smelly noisy busy, no sewage and everything was on the street, disease and rats


Merchants and craftsmen

Merchants sold good and trade, craftsmen bought wool, iron, wood spices and silk off them, built houses with timber frames covered in thick plaster, fresh food was sold in a market, ironmongers bakers carpenters butchers, houses were shops, they all stick together,



Sent as an apprentice to a master craftsman, lived in the attic and ate with the family, dinner was at 12 and supper at 5 in winter or 7 in summer, breakfast was bread and beer, wooden platters instead of plates and fingers, beef lamb chicken pork for dinner, apples cheese spiced cakes for supper, ale mixed with honey with meals, after seven years became a journeyman, could do work, made a masterpiece and brought to the guild judged by other master craftsmen and made one if good enough, free to open shop,


Rules for guild,

No work before sunrise or after dark, all close after dinner on Saturday, closed on Sunday's or fest days, prices fixed for avoiding underselling, guild settled disputes between craftsmen and apprentice or journeyman, payed yearly fee to guild to pay for sick colleagues, their families if they died, each guild had a saint and on their day the shut down the shops and March the streets, a party was held



Laws were set by Lord or mayor, rarely kept in prison, given trial and if guilty they were immediately hanged, gossipers were dunked or wore a scold bridle to stop talking, butchers with bad meat and bakers with bad bread were in the pillory or stocks for a day or on a sleigh, curfew bell rang and everyone inside, if outside house they would be challenged by watchman, everyone had to report if the saw a crime



Most people believed in God, Pope was most powerful ruler, bishops ruled a diocese, cathedrals in each diocese, took over 17 years to build them, first built Romanesque with rounded arches between doors and windows as well as thick columns in the church, gothic was pointed arches and thin columns and the centre aisle, rose windows, roof was supported by flying buttresses



Many lived as monks or nuns, lived in monasteries or convents and prayed, monasteries acted as hospitals poorhouses and inns, Friars didn't live in monasteries but spread the news in towns,


A monk

Spent a year as a novice learning about the rules, rules were spend lots of the day praying to God, serve God by doing ordinary work like working in fields, caring for poor, washing cooking cleaning and give up everything the own obey the abbot and live a life of poverty and chastity, became a monk by taking a vow they would obey the rules, head was shaved in a tonsure, wore a habit and sandals,


Their day

They prayed, mass, ate, work, pray, work, pray, eat, sleep



Church, chapter house for meetings, refectory for eating, cloister for praying, slept in a long narrow room called a dormitory, infirmary for a hospital, herbs were for the ill,an infirmarian was in charge of the sick and became an expert at making medicine, an almoner looker after visitors and gave food to the poor, manuscripts were copied in the scriptorium, spent hours writing and decorating, an illuminator carried out this artwork, self sufficient,


The plague

Broke out from flea infested rats, from trading boats, called Black Death because black boils appeared upon the body, some believed it was a punishment for their sins from God, killed a third of Europe in 6 years, merchants and craftsmen dies from the towns, peasants who survived sought better conditions, they wanted a Lord who payed them for working the land and moved on to another if the didn't pay, this brought the end to the feudal system and led to freedom of serfs



Vikings settled along Dublin, Wexford and Waterford, failed to control large parts of the country, they were defeated by Brian ború, Vikings settled in France in Normandy and became known as the Normans, they introduced the feudal system , Viking duke killed english king and introduced the Norman way of living and came to ireland 100 years later, king of Leinster quarrelled with high king of Ireland and was forced to leave the country and went to english king to take over ireland, he agreed and allowed him an army, king of Leinster went to strong bow for help and strongbox was allowed to marry the Leinster kings daughter and become king of Leinster when he dies, this was bad as they not only took over Leinster but the rest of the country aswell, strongbow went to Waterford and then went to Leinster Connaught and Munster, English king was surprised and went over, the Normans agreed with the English and this led to England ruling ireland, they eventually married the irish and almost became irish, they decreased the Celtic way, Norman's lived in towns, built castles and towns,