Flashcards in Chapter 19 : The Cold War Deck (18):
The Soviet Union established communist governments in the countries in the east after they drove the Nazis out of these countries.
Harry Truman said he wouldn't let communism spread to any other countries. This is called containment (contain communism)
The Marshall plan
USA gave financial aid to Europe to rebuild it after WWII. Stalin would not let his satellite take any of this aid as he thought America was trying to get them away from communism.
The Berlin airlift
German was split into four between Soviet Union, France, America, Britain. Berlin was in the Soviet Union but was divided into four. America, Britain and France wanted Germany to be reunited, but Soviet Union wanted it to remain weak so it couldn't attack in the future.
The Berlin blockade
America, Britain and France planned to introduce a new currency called the Deutschmark into their zones. Stalin thought they were trying to get him to give his zone back to them.
He closed all land and water routes between west Germany and West Berlin. The western allies decided to airlift food and supplies over from three air corridors instead of starting a war.
Planes were landing every three minutes. Hot water bottles were brought over instead of coal for heat. The borders were reopened nearly a year later.
Results of the airlift
Proved that it was impossible to reunite Germany.
West = federal republic of Germany
East = German Democratic Republic
NATO was set up by America, Canada and ten Western Europe countries to prevent any aggression by the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union set up the Warsaw with his Eastern European countries as an alliance.
The East German government closed the border between east and west Germany. They built a wall through the middle of the city and anyone trying to escape was shot.
The Korean War
Korea was split in two after Japan's defeat in WWII as it was a part of its empire.
Soviet Union = north
America = south
Divided into two separate countries along the 38th parallel.
North was led by Kim il sung.
South was led by Syngman Rhee.
North invaded south to try reunite the country. The were armed with soviet weapons, and forced the southern government from Seoul to Pusan.
The United Nations sent an army made up of mostly Americans to South Korea.
A UN force under command of General Douglas MacArthur landed in Inchon. They drove the North Koreans back over the border, and then back to the Yalu river, the border with communist China.
The leader of China, Mao Tse-Tung, thought they were trying to get to the Chinese government.
Chinese troops were sent to the Yalu river, and pushed MacArthurs forces back to the 38th parallel and communist armies occupied part of the south.
MacArthur suggested dropping an atomic bomb on Chinese bases, which was rejected by Truman who was fearful that this could lead to an atomic war, and Truman sacked MacArthur.
Dwight D Eisenhower won the presidential election in America, and promised to bring the Koran war to an end.
Stalin died and was replaced by Nikita Khrushchev.
Both leaders wanted the war to end.
An armistice was signed to fix the border at the 38th parallel.
Results of the Korean War
Cold War spread to Asia.
4 million people died, 2 million were civilians.
Korea is still divided and both sides don't like each other.
The Cuban missile crisis : background
General Batista was a dictator who was overthrown by Fedel Castro.
America was first supportive of Castro, but then realised that Castro anted to turn Cuba into a communist country.
America stopped trade with Cuba and stopped buying its sugar.
Soviet Union agreed to buy their sugar in exchange for oil and machinery.
The bay of pigs
John F Kennedy agreed to invade Cuba, a plan by the Central Intelligence Agency.
1500 Cubans who opposed Castro landed at the bay of pigs. They were outnumbered 300 to one and the plan failed.
This drew Castro closer to the Soviet Union and increased his popularity in Cuba.
The crisis beginning
It was rumoured that the soviets placed nuclear missiles in Cuba, and this was denied by Khrushchev.
American U2 spy planes flew over the Cuban jungle and saw missile bases being prepared, which could reach any American city.
Khrushchev said these were to defend Cuba.
The Americans had also placed missiles in turkey.
Brink of a nuclear war
Kennedy placed a naval blockade around Cuba so all ships going to Cuba would be searched for missiles.
12 ships went towards Cuba, and America placed its navy and airforce on Defcon-2.
Nuclear missiles were loaded into their launch pads.
Soviet ships were half an hour away from reaching the blockade, and Khrushchev ordered his ships to turn back.
Khrushchev agreed to remove his missiles from Cuba, and Kennedy agreed to not invade Cuba again.
Outcome of Cuban missile crisis
It frightened both Soviet and American governments, and the world came close to a nuclear war.
Politicians talked about a period of détente between the Soviet Union and American, which means a relaxing of tensions.
A phone line connecting the White House and the Kremlin allowed the leaders to contact each other in a few minutes to diffuse any future cause of tension.
The Soviet Union and America signed a test ban treaty which agreed to ban testing nuclear bombs in the atmosphere.
The end of the Cold War
Mikhail Gorbachev became the leader of the Soviet Union, and encouraged 'glasnost' which allowed for criticism of the way the Soviet Union and its government were being ran.
He also called for 'perestroika' - a restructuring of the economy.
The Soviet Union could no longer afford to compete with America in the arms race. The Cold War had to end or the Soviet Union would face bankruptcy.