Flashcards in Chapter 15 : Fascism In Italy Deck (14):
Fasces - Latin for a bundle of rods and an axe, sign of authority in Ancient Rome
Mussolini in the army
Was a socialist but turned against them when the socialists objected to join Italy in the war.
He wasn't great in the army
Rise of fascism
Treaty of Versailles : Italy lost over half a million soldiers in the war and those who survived felt cheated and blamed the government for failing to negotiate a better deal
Inflation and unemployment for soldiers
Fear of communism
Blackshirts /Squadristi were anti communist
What did Mussolini promise to Italy
He promised to restore law and order
The march on Rome
Mussolini and 30,000 others fascists began to march on Rome as Mussolini issued a threat to the Italian government to sort out Italy or let the fascists in October 1922. The King victor Emmanuel refused a request from the prime minister Luigi Facta to use the army against the fascists. Facta was forced to resign and Mussolini was appointed the new prime minister of Italy
Becoming a dictator
OVRA seeked out to silence anyone who opposed the fascists.
He had prison camps on the Lipari Islands
Acerbo law allowed for the party with the most votes to had 2/3 seats in the parliament.
Mussolini removed the Kings right to appoint or dismiss government ministers
Corporate state : different corporations were set up to run each sector of the economy.
Unemployment was reduced through public works :
Pontine marshes were drained and turned into farms
Hydro-electrical stations were built and trains were electrified
Wall Street crash in 1929 : Italy suffers from a depression and the economy suffers
Information was exaggerated or false to influence public opinion
Movies and newspapers were made out to seem like Mussolini was a hero
His office light would be kept on at night to make people think he was tirelessly working for his country
School textbooks were re written to support fascist beliefs and history book exaggerated mussolinis role in the war
Children's colouring books made Mussolini a superhero
Youth movements : children were taught 'Mussolini is always right'. They were trained to be army
The Lateran treaty
Mussolini was afraid that people would listen to the pope instead of him
Mussolini recognised the Vatican City as an independent state
Catholicism became the official religion of the church
The pope agreed to recognise the Italian state
Mussolini wanted to make Italy great, respected and feared.
He wanted to increase influence over the Mediterranean.
He wanted to take over other lands.
Mussolini and hitler
Mussolini was afraid that hitler might try to include 200,00 German speaking Italians in the north of italy into a new empire.
Mussolini invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia) to distract the Italians from his economic failures. Condemned by Britain and France and the League of Nations banned the trade of certain good with Italy.
Italy and Germany signed the Rome-Berlin axis.
Germany, Italy and Japan signed an anti communist pact.
Germany and Italy signed the pact of steel that meant they would always help each other out.
The Second World War
Hitler invaded Poland and Italy had to help because of the pact of steel. Italy's army was not prepared for war and didn't fight until 1940 when Hitler conquered most of Europe. Italy joined and went to Africa and Greece and failed to gain control. Hitler delayed plans to invite the Soviet Union to help the Italians and this may have cost him the war.