Chapter 11 : The American Revolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 : The American Revolution Deck (34):

First British colony



Where did people immigrate

Ireland, Germany, Britain, population in 1760 was 2.5 million


Why wealthy in the south

Cotton and tobacco


Africans in the south

Forced to work on the plantations in Virginia, South Carolina and Georgia


Ulster Scots

200,000 migrated and brought religion with them, became wealthy landowners in the south.


Constitutional monarchy

England was one, King had to share power with Westminster parliament


George III

king of England, King of North American countries, had to rule 3000 miles away


Kings representatives and elected assembly

Governor, ruled a colony, elected assembly like the English Parliament who advised the governor



Country or region controlled by another country.


The enlightenment

Educated people questioned traditional ideas like 'the divine right of Kings' which was the belief that God picked a King to rule on his behalf, but people then thought it was ridiculous


French and Indian war

Britain and French at war around the world in places like America. The French fought with the 'Indians' and the British fought with the colonists, who got experience with fighting. 7 years later Britain won and took rule over Canada. George Washington fought with Britain.



People referred to themselves as American not British, and they got angry that they were being ruled by someone very far away.


Representation at Westminster

The colonies had no representation at Westminster, so the colonists had no say in matters that affected them


Leaders of the American revolution and war of independence

Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, John Addams thought America could be ruled by Americans not British


Navigation acts

Unfair trade restrictions, could only sell tobacco to Britain at britains price, could only buy sugar from the plantations in the West Indies which were owned by British nobles and the Westminster parliament


The quartering act

Colonies payed the tax to keep the British army in the north to keep away from 'Indian' attack.


The stamp act

Put tax on legal documents which increased cost of claiming legal title to new lands. New slogan of the American Revolution became 'no taxation without representation'


American democracy

Men would have the right to vote


Townsend acts

New tax on everyday items like tea and glass, Britain took them away except for tea to show that they still ruled them.


Boston massacre

Five men shot dead after protesting against the Townshend acts


Boston tea party

16 December 1773 colonists dressed as American Indians got on British ships in Boston harbour and dumped the tea into the water


Intolerable acts

British saw Boston tea party as an act of open rebellion so they closed down the port and city of Boston with new laws, hence the name I. A.


First continental congress

1774 the 13 colonies met in Philadelphia to discuss the events. Each colony formed a militia or army in preparation of war.


First war

1775 near Boston. General Gage, British governor, tried to seize militia weapons in Concord. Attacked in Lexington but fought their way to Concord, and were then forced to Boston. 300 redcoats were killed during the battles of Lexington and Concord.


Patrick Henry

Representative of Virginia at second continental congress urges men to help fight in Massachusetts, saying 'give me liberty or give me death!' He thought being a colony was being a slave.


Second continental congress

Gathered militia in Philadelphia in May 1775, appointed George Washington as head of the continental army


George Washington

Born in 1732 in Virginia, lived with brother Lawrence. Trained surveyor, Lawrence died when George was 20 so he got Mount Vernon plantation : five separate farms, 8000 acres. France tried to get Canada and Louisiana and George fought with Britain. 4 bullets went through George's coat, and almost died again when he was on two horses that were shot. George married Martha Dandridge, who made George one of the largest landowners in Virginia thanks to her plantation. Member of Virginia assembly and attended first and second continental congresses as a Virginian representative. Thought taxation was unfair. Was seen as a patriot and agreed with the leaders to form an American republic. Commander-in-chief of the continental army


Thomas Paine

Wrote Common Sense which urged the Americans to fight


Third continental congress/Declaration of independence

1776, 4 July declared independence from Britain of the '13 United States of America'. The declaration of independence written by Thomas Jefferson. 'All men are created equal'. There would be a president as head of state. Defeated the British in Boston, but was defeated in New York.


Guerilla fighting

Means little war in Spanish. For small armies to use hit and run tactics.



General Horatio Gates led the Americans, and this showed they had potential to win the war. There was talk to replace George Washington with General Horatio Gates. Americans won.


Valley forge

Didn't fight in winter, Washington trained his war during the winter in valley forge Pennsylvania even though some were getting sick and leaving without permission. German officer, Frederick von Steuben, trained the continental army.



Benjamin Franklin spent two years in Paris persuading the French to help America. Marquis de Lafayette was already helping but the government didn't want to pay money, but agreed when they found out about the victory in Saratoga. Six thousand troops were sent to America and the French navy made it hard and expensive for the British to supply their army in America. Washington defeated the British General Cornwallis at Yorktown in Virginia on 19 October 1781 and the war of independence was over. The treaty of Paris was signed in 1783


Effects of the American war of independence

Became democratic, only for white men. Inspired France when they were unhappy with King Louis XVI but they were bankrupt when they spent money on America.
They inspired United Irishmen to achieve independence.
The had a book of rules on how the country should be governed and a Bill of rights, which guaranteed certain rights and freedoms to its citizens.
George Washington served as president from 1789 to 1797