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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (17):
1

How does the sea erode ⭐️

The waves crash against the coast and cause hydraulic action.
The sea uses its load to erode the coast and cause abrasion.
The load is smashed together and made smaller by attrition.

2

Landforms caused by sea erosion

It forms bays, headlands, sea cliffs, sea caves, sea arches, sea stacks, sea stumps and blowholes.

3

Bays and headlands

Are formed when the sea erodes a coastline with hard and soft rock. The sea erodes the soft rock by hydraulic action and abrasion. The soft rock forms bays and the hard rock forms headlands. A headland is a high piece of land that juts out into the sea. An example is the coast near tramore, Waterford

4

Sea cliffs ⭐️

The waves erode and undercut the base of the cliff by using hydraulic action and abrasion. A wave cut notch is formed between the high and low water marks where the wave eroded the rock. The face of the cliff falls down. A wave cut platform is created. An example is near Tramore, Waterford, the Cliffs Of Moher, Clare.

5

Sea cave

Faults and joints are widened into cracks by hydraulic action and abrasion which then are widened into caves.

6

Sea arches

They are formed when two caves are back to back.

7

Sea stacks

They're formed when the roof of the arch collapses

8

Sea stumps

They're the worn down stacks. Some example are in Kerry and Waterford.

9

Blowholes

They're openings in the roof of the cave that reach that reach the surface. They were joints and faults that were made bigger. Spray is blown up during storms.

10

Waves

They carry out the work of the sea through erosion, transportation and deposition. Constructive waves deposit. Destructive waves erode. The fetch is the sea where the wind blows the waves. A long fetch and strong wind produces strong waves. The longer the fetch, the more erosion and energy.

11

Sandspit

Are formed by longshore drift when it deposits its sand. It is made mostly out of sand and is connected to land at one end.

12

Sandbar

Is when a sand spit stretches all the way across a bay and connects the two sides.

13

Lagoon

Forms behind a sandbar and is shallow

14

A tombolo

Is when a sandpit connects the land to an island.

15

Sea deposition ⭐️

The sea deposits its load when the waves lose their power as they are slowed down in sheltered bays or gently sloping shores.

16

Beach ⭐️

Stretches along the shore and is composed of sand and shingle deposited by the waves between high and low tide.
Formed through swash and backwash on the coast.
The waves bring heavier material up the beach.
When the swash is stronger than the backwash only the light material is brought back down.
Storm beach : bigger stones and rock at back of beach above the high water mark after a storm.
Sandy beach : between high and low water mark.
Sand dunes : when sand is blown up a beach and builds up when trapped by vegetation or stones.

17

Swash and backwash ⭐️

The swash is the water rushing up the beach from a wave. This transports sand and pebbles.
The backwash is the movement of water falling down the beach after the swash.
The the swash is stronger than the backwash