Flashcards in Chapter 7 : The Renaissance Deck (22):
How did the Renaissance come about
Artists and scholars in 1359 were interested in the Roman art, architecture and writing. They wanted to be like the Romans before the battle. Renaissance means rebirth. It is seen as the end of the Middle Ages and the start of the modern world.
Why did the Renaissance begin
They were inspired by the old Rome, the forum and the colosseum inspired the architects and artists to rebuild. In 1453 the Turks captured Constantinople from the Greeks so they fled to Italy and brought Greek manuscripts. Italy was very rich, it was not United but was made up of wealthy independent states like Milan, Florence and Venice, they were ruled by princes or rich merchants who bought and sold, patrons paid artists and architects to produce art, those who were paid might do it as work rather than fun. The medicis were from Florence. Lorenzo de Medici was the best patron, he worked with michelangelo and da Vinci. Italy became the trading centre for Europe, it was where people from different cultures went and met.
People designed building with large pillars, round arches, domed roofs, and front porches called porticoes with a triangle on top. It was used in Rome and Greece and is called classical architecture. Fillipo Brunelleschi used classical architecture for his dome cathedral, he studied maths and examined old buildings to try figure out how they did it, he used corbelling.
They used nature to help give feeling, and dissected bodies to understand how the body worked.
They used perspective, they added linseed oil to paint instead of egg yolk to help it not dry as fast, they used sfumato which means smokey to give shade to faces, they used frescos meaning fresh to paint onto wet plaster so that it absorbed, thy had to work before the plaster dried, they sketched what they wanted to paint before painting.
Leonardo da Vincis life
He was smart and was interested in living. He was an inventor, artist, architect, musician, botanist, mathematician and sportsman. Born near Florence. Attended school between 5-12 but found it easy and spent time drawing. His father thought he should be a full time artist.
Leonardo in Milan
He showed work to Andrea del verrochio who took 14 year old da Vinci as his apprentice, verrochio was also a sculptor and goldsmith. He insisted that Leonardo study anatomy. He helped verrochio to paint the baptism of Christ, people recognised Leonard's talent and he was accepted into the painters guild in Florence which meant he was free of apprenticeship. He went to Milan to work for duke sforza who let him do any kind of work, he wrote down many ideas but didn't finish many. Only 17 paintings survived
He was a great inventor. He sketched a hand glider, helicopter, parachute, machine gun, tank and cannon. He used mirror writing in case someone copied him or if the church found out he thought different. He dissected 30 bodies. He drew the heart, lungs, brain and muscles.
The Mona Lisa
It is believed it was painted of a silk merchants wife for celebration of their second child. It is famous for sfumato, the smile and that she's always looking at you.
His last years
He moved to Rome in hope to work for the pope but was turned away as there was no work for him so he moved to France because he was invited by the king to live in the palace. He was good for answering questions. He left 120 notebook with 7000 notes and diagrams but most of his inventions weren't and couldn't be created. He is considered to be 'a man before his time'
He was a painter, architect, sculptor and poet. He grew up in Florence and worked for Lorenzo de Medici. He lived with the family and was considered and was considered a part until Lorenzo died. He preferred sculpting over painting. He moved to Rome and carved the pietà. He returned to Florence and carved David which was so lifelike and that showed he studied anatomy. He moved to Rome again to paint the ceiling of the Sistine chapel. It took him 4 years to paint the fresco. He started in the middle from the start of the bible and worked his was out. He didn't want anyone to help him. He painted another fresco behind the altar.
He studied paintings under Leonardo and Michelangelo in Florence. He was invited to Rome by the pope where he painted the school of Athens in a fresco, it is known for its use of perspective. He is also known for paining madonna paintings of Mary holding baby Jesus which were in great demand.
The Renaissance outside of Italy
The Netherlands were the centre of art outside Italy. Jan van eyck was the first great artist of the Northern European Renaissance. His perspective wasn't very good but he was known for detail, he used linseed oil. He painted the arnolfini marriage. Albrecht dürer was the best German artist. He was known for painting and engraving. He painted the hare.
Rembrandt van rijn
He was the greatest Dutch painter. Born in the university town of Leiden in the Netherlands and lived with his family until 25. His dad wanted him to have a professional career. He is known for rich colours and use of light and dark shade. He moved into the Jewish quarter in Amsterdam where he worked and got rich off portrait paintings. His wife was in many paintings before she died. He painted himself and looked sad in the end of these 60 paintings to show that his wife and three children died, leaving his only son. He painted Saint Paul in prison, the anatomy and the night watch. It shows city guards going off to work, scattered rather than in a line, causing chaos between him and the ones in the back who tried to avoid paying him. They had to cut off part of the painting in order to fit on a wall in Amsterdam, cutting off 3 men. It is also known for its amazing shading.
Printing and literature
A printing press was the best invention. At first they used block print by carving out every page. Johann Gutenberg made the moveable type with lots of letters fitted together in a frame then covered in ink. He designed it from a presser to crush grapes for wine. He could print 300 sheets a day and produced his first book, an edition of the bible with 1200 pages in two volumes. First they used gothic writing but then moved onto thinner and smaller italic writing designed by the Italians.
They showed a great interest in the lives of people which is called humanism. Thomas Moore published Utopia, a book about the ideal life in paradise. Erasmus was a Dutch writer and a friend of Thomas. Although he was an Augustinian priest he spent a lot of time fighting with the Catholic Church. He hoped his writing would help the church to listen to him.
He was a vernacular writer meaning he wrote in English because he lived in England and was England's best writer. He was born in Stratford-on-Avon and married Anne Hathaway at 18 who was the daughter of a wealthy landowner. He moved to London to become an actor. He rewrote old plays and then became writing his own. He wrote 37 plays altogether. Some famous ones are Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth and a midsummers night dream.
Shakespeare's globe theatre
It was his round theatre and could hold up to 2000 people. Tickets were more expensive the more comfortable the seating was. The acting had to be good as there was little props. It was often that people were rowdy if the play was bad and threw rotten apples at the actors. He is famous for writing sonnets or short love poems. There were only men actors as women were forbidden to act.
Cures for illness
They would cut open a vein and let the blood run for many illnesses. Eh barber sign resembles blood and cloth. They used leeches to suck to blood too. The put a garlic clove in their ear. They put a hot iron on a wound.
Finding about bodies
They used anatomy which was the which was how the body works. Many artists and doctors dissected bodies. This was in secret because the church thought of it as disrespectful but quickly changed. Andreas Vesalius published on the fabric of the human body which was about dissecting bodies. William Harvey discovered that the body was like a pump.
He was a polish mathematician and astronomer who questioned Ptolemy who thought the planets revolved around Earth because we were in the middle. He found out that we revolved around the sun but didn't say anything in fear of the Catholic Church but did when on his deathbed.