Flashcards in Chapter 9 : The Reformation Deck (18):
Deeply religious, regarded the pope as the enemy of Christianity. They mainly lived in Northern Europe. The Catholics lived mainly in the south. This split was called the reformation
The pope was the head, followed by cardinals, bishops and archbishops. Because of this, the hierarchy manages the money from the tithe. This made people want to join the priesthood because they got money.
The bad training of the priests
Many could not even speak Latin, the language of the church, so they couldn't explain the mass or bible to the people. They ignored the rules and married, had wives and children.
Why did it happen
In 1500, everyone in Europe was Christian, the pope, was the head. Everyone had to pay one tenth of their earnings to the church. But by 1600 there had been a split as the church was very corrupt.
When the hierarchy appointed their family members and priests and bishops even if they weren't qualified or trained.
N = not trained family
It means bribery. The popes accepted money to appoint cardinals who accepted money to appoint bishops who accepted money to appoint priests.
S = sale of jobs
Pluralism and absenteeism
If a priest controlled many parishes or diocese, he would become more rich. This meant that they wouldn't be at one of the churches for a while if they were in another one. This is called absenteeism.
P = plural, different churches
A = absent, gone for periods of time
Sale of indulgences
Christians believed in a place called purgatory. It was between heaven and hell. Normal people who seldom sinned were sent there before heaven to be punished. The people didn't want to go there so the church said if they could reduce their time spent there by paying an indulgence, which was a special prayer, which was paid in money for the poor, or in cathedrals for rich
He was born in Saxony, Germany. He joined the Augustinian order and trained to be a priest and became a teacher at the university of Wittenberg. He saw himself as a sinner and studied the bible for a way to get to heaven. He found justification by faith alone, which meant no buying indulgences. Pope wanted to build St. Peter's basilica in Rome, so he accepted large payments of money for indulgences to pay for it. John Tetzel was sent to Germany to collect money. Luther thought this was wrong. The church promised the archbishop of Mainz, Luthers archbishop, half of all the money collected, if he let them come in. He did and Luther wrote a letter to the archbishop. He wrote 95 arguments against indulgences and nailed them to the door of a church at Wittenberg castle. These spread thanks to the printing press and many agreed with him. He was asked to take these back, by the Pope, but he refused. Pope Leo X sent out a papal bull called Exurge Domini, telling Luther to recant. Luthier burned it in public, which got him expelled from the church, but he was happy as he thought they were so corrupt. Supporters of the pope and of Luther were getting angry, so Charles X, emperor of Germany, called a meeting (Diet) of all the German princes in Worms. Luther was told to recant before this and didn't, so he was declared an outlaw by the edict (order) of worms, which meant he could be killed by anyone. Many princes supported him, including Frederick, Elector of Saxony, who brought him to his castle in Wartburg where he protected him. He spent a year there, translating the bible into German. His beliefs were.
Justification by faith alone.
Priests can marry.
Bible should be in the vernacular.
He only believed in two sacraments, baptism and communion as they were the only ones included in the bible
Transubstantiation is when you believe that the wine and bread at mass turns into Jesus' body and blood. Luther believed in this but that it stayed as bread and wine. This is called substantiation.
He returned to Wittenberg. German became torn between Protestants and Catholics, so eventually the treaty of Augsburg in 1555 after the war of religion in 1545. The treaty agreed that the prince could choose the religion of his people, but this was a compromise.
French, he believed that the Catholic church was corrupt. It was dangerous to say this as French Protestants called Huguenots were persecuted. He believed that Luther read not gone far enough with his beliefs, so he fled to Geneva in Switzerland. His form of Protestantism was called Calvinism or Presbyterianism.
Priests should be able to marry
Church services should be in the vernacular
The only source to god is the bible
Predestination was when God picked who was going to heaven before they were born, so people tried to be good as they hoped that they were one of the elect
Calvin only believed in baptism
Ministers of Calvinism were called presbyters
Churches were to be declared simply so people wouldn't be distracted.
You were arrested if you weren't in church on Sunday
Entertainment was banned
Swearing was a crime and punishable by the law
They were encouraged to dress in black
Heretics were those who disagreed with Calvin, and they were burned at the stake
Born in Scotland and brought Presbyterianism to Scotland
King Henry VIII
King of England, was an enemy of Lutheranism until he became a Protestant and set up his own church because he wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon, as she had not given him a son. The pope would not grant him a divorce, so he set up the Church of England or Anglican Church. It was the exact same as Catholicism except you could divorce.
The Catholic Church was forced to make changes as many people were leaving the church. The council of Trent was a long meeting held by bishops, archbishops and cardinals in Italy.
Counter reformation changes
Simony, pluralism, nepotism to be banned
Absenteeism to be banned as bishops were forced to live in their diocese
All priest were to train in seminaries (Maynooth, Kildare)
Protestant books and books that disagreed with the church were banned
Ignatius Loyola set up the Jesuit order. The Jesuits, or society of Jesus, were set up after a meeting between Loyola and other Catholics in Paris. The pope made the Jesuits an official part of the Catholic Church as they attempted to convert Protestants back to Catholicism. They succeeded in southern Germany and Poland. They set up schools which promoted Catholic ideas. They travelled to America with Spain and Portugal which is why most of America is Catholic.