Chapter 14- GI system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14- GI system Deck (147):
1

abdomin/o

abdomen

2

celi/o

abdomen

3

lapar/o

abdomen

4

an/o

anus

5

appendic/o

appendix

6

bil/i

bile

7

chol/e

bile

8

bucc/o

cheek

9

cheil/o

lip

10

col/o

colon

11

colon/o

colon

12

cyst/o

bladder or sac

13

dent/i

teeth

14

doch/o

duct

15

duoden/o

duodenum

16

enter/o

small intestine

17

esophag/o

esophagus

18

gastr/o

stomach

19

gingiv/o

gum

20

gloss/o

tongue

21

lingu/o

tongue

22

hepat/o

liver

23

hepatic/o

liver

24

herni/o

hernia

25

ile/o

ileum

26

inguin/o

groin

27

jejun/o

jejunum (empty)

28

lith/o

stone

29

or/o

mouth

30

stomat/o

mouth

31

pancreat/o

pancreas

32

peritone/o

peritoneum

33

phag/o

eat or swallow

34

proct/o

anus and rectum

35

pylor/o

pylorus (gatekeeper)

36

rect/o

rectum

37

sial/o

saliva

38

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon (resembles s)

39

steat/o

fat

40

prefix -emesis

vomiting

41

anorexia

loss of appetite (orexia=appetite)

42

aphagia

inability to swallow

43

ascites

accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity (ascos=bag)

44

buccal

in the cheek

45

constipation

infrequent or incomplete bowel movements characterized by hardened, dry stool that is difficult to pass (constipo=to press together)

46

diarrhea

frequent loose or liquid stools

47

dyspepsia

indigestion (peptein= to digest)

48

dysphagia

difficulting in swallowing

49

eructation

belch

50

flatulence

gas in the stomach or intestines (flatus=a blowing)

51

halitosis

bad breath (halitus=breath)

52

hematochezia

red blood in the stool (chezo=defecate)

53

hematemesis

vomiting blood

54

hepatomegaly

enlargement of the liver

55

hyperbilirubinemia

excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood

56

icterus

jaundice

57

jaundice

yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera (white of the eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood (jaundice=yellow)

58

melena

dark-colored, tarry stool caused by old blood

59

nausea

sick in the stomach

60

steatorrhea

feces containing fat

61

sublingual

under the tongue

62

hypoglossal

under the tongue

63

stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth

64

sialoadenitis

inflammation of a salivary gland

65

parotitis (parotiditis)

inflammation of the parotid gland; also called mumps

66

cheilitis

inflammation of the lip

67

glossitis

inflammation of the tongue

68

ankyloglossia

tongue-tie; a defect of the tongue characterized by a short, thick frenulum (ankyl/o=crooked or stiff)

69

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

70

esophageal varices

swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage

71

esophagitis

inflammation of the esophagus

72

gastritis

inflammation of the stomach

73

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus, often as a result of abnormal function of the lower esophageal sphincter; causes burning pain in the esophagus

74

pyloric stenosis

narrowed condition of the pylorus

75

peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

a sore on the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the gastrointestinal system exposed to gastric juices; commonly caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria (pept/o=to digest)

76

gastric ulcer

ulcer located in the stomach

77

duodenal ulcer

ulcer located in the duodenum

78

gastroenteritis

inflammation of the stomach and small intestine

79

enteritis

inflammation of the small intestine

80

ileitis

inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine

81

colitis

inflammation of the colon (large intestine)

82

ulcerative colitis

chronic inflammation of the colon along with ulcerations

83

diverticulum

a by-way; an abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract usually related to a lack of dietary fiber

84

diverticulosis

presence of diverticula in the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the bowel

85

diverticulitis

inflammation of diverticula

86

dysentery

inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools, most often caused by bacteria or protozoa

87

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

88

hernia

protrusion of a part from its normal location

89

hiatal hernia

protrusion of part of the stomach upward through the hiatal opening in the diaphragm

90

inguinal hernia

protrusion of a loop of the intestine through layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region

91

incarcerated hernia

hernia that is swollen and fixed within a sac, causing an obstruction

92

strangulated hernia

hernia that is constricted, cut off from circulation, and likely to become gangrenous

93

umbilical hernia

protrusion of the intestine through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus (navel)

94

intussusception

prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part (intus=within; suscipiens= to take up)

95

volvulus

twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction

96

polyposis

multiple polyps in the intestine and rectum with a high malignancy potential

97

polyp

tumor on a stalk

98

proctitis

inflammation of the rectum and anus

99

anal fistula

abnormal tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum (fistula=pipe)

100

hemorrhoid

swollen, twisted vein (varicosity) in the anal region (haimorrhois= a vein likely to bleed)

101

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

102

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

103

Hepatitis A

infectious inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), usually transmitted orally through fecal contamination of food or water

104

Hepatitis B

infectious inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids

105

Hepatitis C

inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmitted by exposure to infected blood (rarely contracted sexually)

106

cirrhosis

chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue, most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency (cirrho=yellow)

107

cholangitis

inflammation of the bile ducts

108

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gallbladder

109

cholelithiasis

presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts

110

choledocholithiasis

presence of stones in the common bile duct

111

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

112

bariatric surgery

treatment of morbid obesity by surgery to the stomach and/or intestines; procedures include restrictive techniques that limit the size of the stomach and malabsorptive techniques that limit the absorption of food (baros=weight, iatric= pertains to treatment)

113

cheiloplasty

repair of the lip

114

glossectomy

excision of all or part of the tongue

115

glossorrhaphy

suture of the tongue

116

esophagoplasty

repair of the esophagus

117

gastrectomy

partial or complete removal of the stomach

118

gastric resection

partial removal and repair of the stomach

119

abdominocentesis

surgical puncture of abdomen

120

paracentesis

puncture of the abdomen for aspiration of fluid

121

laparotomy

incision into the abdomen

122

laparoscopic surgery

abdominal surgery using a laparoscope

123

heriorrhaphy

surgical creation of an opening on the abdomen to which the end of the ileum is attached, providing a passageway for ileal discharges; performed after removal of the colon

124

hernioplasty

repair of a hernia

125

colostomy

creation of an opening in the colon through the abdominal wall to create an abdominal anus allowing stool to bypass a diseased portion of the colon; performed to treat ulcerative colitis, cancer, or obstructions

126

anastomosis

union of two hollow vessels; used in bowel surgery

127

ileostomy

surgical creation of an opening on the abdomen to which the end of the ileum is attached, providing a passageway for ileal discharges; performed after removal of the colon

128

appendectomy

excision of a diseased appendix

129

incidental appendectomy

removal of the appendix during abdominal surgery for another procedure

130

polypectomy

excision of polyps

131

proctoplasty

repair of the anus and rectum

132

anal fistulectomy

excision of an anal fistula

133

hemorrhoidectomy

excision of hemorrhoids

134

hepatic lobectomy

excision of a lobe of the liver

135

cholecystectomy

excision of the gallbladder

136

laparoscopic cholecystectomy

excision of the gallbladder through a laparoscope

137

cholelithotomy

incision for removal of gallstones

138

choledocholithotomy

incision of the common bile duct for extraction of gallstones

139

cholelithotripsy

crushing of gallstones

140

pancreatectomy

excision of the pancreas

141

PUD

peptic ulcer disease

142

GERD

gastroesophageal refulx disease

143

ERCP

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

144

UGI

upper gastrointestinal

145

LGI

lower gastrointestinal

146

EGD

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

147

NG

nasogastric