Chapter 14 vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 vocabulary Deck (93):
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Acetylcholine

Cholinergic neurotransmitter

1

akathesia

Inability to remain still

3

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Muscular weakness, atrophy with spasticity caused by degeneration of motor neurons (aka Lou Gehrig's disease)

4

aphagia

lack of ability to eat or swallow

5

apraxia

lack of ability to use objects properly and recognize common objects, inability to perform motor tasks of daily living

6

asthenia

lack of strength

7

astrocytoma

brain tumour; composed of astrocytes

8

ataxia

lack of order

9

bradykinesia

abnormal slowness of motion

10

cephalalgia

headache

11

cerebellar

pertaining to the cerebellum

12

cerebral palsy

disorder of movement and posture due to damage to motor control centres of the developing brain

13

cerebrospinal

pertaining to the cerebrum and the spinal cord

14

chorea

abnormal involuntary movement disorder

15

diskectomy

surgical excision of a intervertebral disk

16

dysphasia

impairment of speech

17

electroencephalograph

medical instrument used to record electrical activity in brain

18

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

19

encephalopathy

any pathological dysfunction of the brain

20

epiduroscopy

surgical introduction of medication into epidural space

21

ganglionectomy

surgical excision of a ganglion

22

glioma

tumour composed of neurological tissue

23

Guillan-Barre syndrome

pathological condition in which the myelin sheaths covering peripheral nerves are destroyed

24

hemiparesis

weakness on one side of the body

25

hemiplegia

paralysis of one half of the body (left or right)

26

herniated disk syndrom

condition where the soft, gelatinous central portion of an intervertebral disk is forced through a weakened part of the disk

27

herpes zoster

shingles

28

hydrocephalus

condition in which there is an increase in cerebrospinal fluid within the brain

29

hyperesthesia

increase feelings of sensory stimuli

30

hyperkinesis

increased muscular movement, inability to keep still

31

intracranial

pertaining to within the skull

32

laminectomy

surgical excision of a vertebral posterior arch

33

meningioma

tumour of the meninges

34

meningocele

congenital hernia in which meninges protrude through defect in skull or spinal column

35

meningomyelocele

congenital herniation of spinal cord and meninges

36

microcephalus

abnormally small head

37

multiple sclerosis

chronic disease of the central nervous system marked by damage to myelin sheath

38

myelitis

inflammation of spinal cord

39

myelography

xray recording of spinal cord

40

neuralgia

pain in a nerve

41

neurasthenia

pathological condition characterized by weakness, exhaustion, and prostration

42

neurilemma

thin membranous sheath that envelops a nerve fibre

43

neuritis

inflammation of a nerve

44

neuroblast

immature nervous tissue cell

45

neuroblastoma

malignant tumour composed of cells resembling neuroblasts

46

neurocyte

nerve cell

47

neurofibroma

fibrous connective tissue tumour or a nerve

48

neuroglia

supporting or connective tissue cells of the central nervous system

49

neuroma

tumour of nerve cells and fibres

50

oligodendroglioma

malignant tumour derived and composed of oligodendroglia

51

pallidotomy

surgical destruction of the globus pallidus of the brain (Parkinson's treatment)

52

palsy

pathological loss of sensation or an impairment of motor function

53

papilledema

swelling of optical disk

54

paresis

partial paralysis

55

paresthesia

abnormal sensation, feeling of numbness, prickling, tingling

56

Parkinson's disease

progressive neurological disorder caused by degeneration of nerve cells in movement area of brain

57

paroxysm

sudden recurrence of symptoms of a disease

58

pheochromocytoma

chromaffin cell tumour

59

poliomyelitis

inflammation of the grey matter of the spinal cord

60

Reye's syndrome

acute disease that causes edema of the brain and increased intracranial pressure

61

somnambulism

sleepwalking

62

spondylosyndesis

surgical procedure to bind vertebra after removal of herniated disk

63

sundowning

increase agitation that occurs late afternoon/early evening in patients with cognitive impairment

64

sympathectomy

surgical excision of a portion of the sympathetic nervous system

65

syncope

temporary loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to brain

66

Tay-Sachs disease

inherited, progressive disease marked by degeneration of brain tissue

67

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulations

use of mild electrical stimulation to interfere with transmission of painful stimuli

68

vagotomy

surgical incision of the vagus nerve

69

ventriculometry

measurement of intercranial pressure

70

cerebral angiography

process of making xray record of cerebral arterial system

71

computed tomography

diagnostic procedure used to study structure of brain

72

echoencephalography

using ultrasound to determine presence of centrally located mass in the brain

73

electroencephalography

process of measuring electrical activity of the brain

74

myelogram

xray of spinal canal

75

positron emission tomography

imaging procedure that can produce 3D picture of actual organ functioning

76

ultrasonography

use of high-frequency sound waves to record echoes

77

parts of a neuron: arms

dendrites

78

parts of a neuron: tail

axon

79

Sheath that wraps the axons of some neurons is called

myelin

80

types of neuroglia: star shaped, transporting water

astroglia

81

types of neuroglia: small, phagocytic cells, respond to inflammation

microglia

82

types of neuroglia: form the myelin sheath

oligodendroglia

83

the space between two nerve cells is known as

synapse

84

mediate impulses between sensory and motor neurons

interneurons

85

How many pair of cranial nerves in PNS?

12

86

How many pair of spinal nerves in PNS?

31

87

A large network of nerves in the PNS is known as

plexus

88

The folds of the cerebrum are known as

gyri

89

The grooves of the cerebrum are known as

sulci

90

Four lobes of the cerebrum are

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

91

Outermost layer of meninges is called

dura mater

92

Middle layer of meninges is called

arachnoid

93

Innermost layer of meninges is called

pia mater

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