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Flashcards in chapter 15 Deck (28)
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A sudden, severe allergic reaction characterized by a sharp drop in blood pressure, urticaria, and breathing difficulties that is caused by exposure to a foreign substance, such as a drug or bee venom, after a preliminary or sensitizing exposure.

Anaphylactic Shock


A dire form of cardiac arrest in which the heart stops beating and there is no electrical activity in the heart.



a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient,and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of electrical therapy which stops the arrhythmia, allowing the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm.



the loss and redistribution of fluid, electrolytes and plasma protein, increased blood viscosity and increased peripheral resistance that follow a severe burn contribute to shock.

burn shock


sudden cessation of the pumping function of the heart with disappearance of arterial blood pressure, connoting either ventricular fibrillation or ventricular standstill.

cardiac arrest


a condition in which a suddenly weakened heart isn't able to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.

cardiogenic shock


refers to a series of actions that, when put into motion, reduce the mortality associated with cardiac arrest

chain of survival


Any adult patient having a systolic blood pressure BELOW 90 mm Hg AND exhibiting signs of inadequate perfusion, which may include:

· Altered mental status (e.g., lethargy, coma);

· Increased Pulse Rate (Tachycardia);

· Pale Skin (Pallor);

· Cool, Clammy Skin (Diaphoresis);

· Pale conjunctiva;

· Delayed capillary refill;

· Orthostatic vital sign changes (EMT and AEMT only)

Any pediatric patient having a systolic blood pressure BELOW 70 mm/Hg OR the following signs of inadequate central (proximal) perfusion:

· Altered mental status (e.g., lethargy, coma);

· Extensive cyanosis of all extremities;

· Weak or impalpable central (proximal) pulses (femoral, brachial, carotid).

decompensatory shock


a common treatment for life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia



Distributive shock occurs when the blood vessels are dilated with affects blood volume and blood pressure within the vessels.

distributive shock


from the period of time a patient goes into cardiac arrest until CPR is effectively being performed.



a condition of reduced tissue perfusion, resulting in the inadequate delivery of oxygen and nutrients that are necessary for cellular function.

Whenever cellular oxygen demand outweighs supply, both the cell and the organism are in a state of shock.

hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock


decreased blood flow through an organ, as in hypovolemic shock;



condition in which shock does not respond to available forms of treatment and in which recovery is impossible as a result of massive cellular damage.

irreversible shock


occurs after an injury to the spinal cord. Sympathetic outflow is disrupted resulting in unopposed vagal tone.

neurogenic shock


not causing or associated with hemorrhage

nonhemorrhagic shock


refers to a cardiac arrest situation in which a heart rhythm is observed on the electrocardiogram that should be producing a pulse, but is not.

pulseless electrical activity (PEA)


an emergency procedure, performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person in cardiac arrest



resumption of sustained perfusing cardiac activity associated with significant respiratory effort after cardiac arrest.

Signs of ROSC include breathing, coughing, or movement and a palpable pulse or a measurable blood pressure.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation increase the chances of ROSC.

return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC)


shock associated with overwhelming infection, usually by gram-negative bacteria, although it may be produced by other bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. It is thought to result from the action of endotoxins or other products of the infectious agent on the vascular system causing large volumes of blood to be sequestered in the capillaries and veins; activation of the complement and kinin systems and the release of histamine, cytokines, prostaglandins, and other mediators may be involved. Clinical characteristics include initial chills and fever, warm flushed skin, increased cardiac output, and a lesser degree of hypotension than with hypovolemic shock; if therapy is ineffective, it may progress to the clinical picture associated with hypovolemic shock.

septic shock


. a sudden disturbance of mental equilibrium.

a profound hemodynamic and metabolic disturbance due to failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate perfusion of vital organs.



natural death from cardiac causes, heralded by abrupt loss of consciousness within one hour of the onset of acute symptoms.

Other forms of sudden death may be noncardiac in origin.

Examples include respiratory arrest (such as airway obstruction in cases of choking or asphyxiation), toxicity or poisoning, anaphylaxis, or trauma.

sudden death


when a patient who survives cardiac arrest and is being released from the hospital



time when patient went into cardiac arrest to the time delivered to hospital

total down time


when an emt arrives on scene and a patient is unresponsive, apneic and pulseless

unwitnessed cardiac arrest


a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly

ventricular fibrillation (VF or V-Fib)


a type of tachycardia, or a rapid heart beat, that starts in the bottom chambers of the heart, called the ventricles.[1] The ventricles are the main pumping chambers of the heart. This is a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia because it may lead to ventricular fibrillation, asystole, and sudden death.

ventricular tachycardia (VT or V-tach)


when an emt arrives on scene and witnesses a patient become unresponsive, apneic and pulseless

witnessed cardiac arrest