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Flashcards in Chapter 20 Diabetic Emergency Deck (66)
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1

ia condition in which there is a disturbance in the metabolism of carbs, fats, and protein

Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

2

What are the 3 major food sources for the body's cells?

carbohydrates, fats, and protein

3

What is the primary energy source for the cell?

Carbohydrates (complex)
3 major sources
1. sucrose (table sugar)
2. lactose (milk & Dairy products)
3. starches (potatoes & Bread)

4

Complex carbohydrates are broken down in the body into simple sugar known as?

glucose

5

What percentage of glucose is used by the body?

95%

6

What is the major source of fuel for the cell

glucose

7

which cells in the body can only use glucose?

brain cells

8

What is the most common sign of brain cell dysfunction?

Altered mental status

9

What is osmotic pressure?

the glucose molecule attracts water as it moves

10

Why is it dangerous to give glucose to a patient with a brain injury or stroke?

when giving glucose, the brain allows more glucose to cross into the cell bringing water with it. This leads to more edema (swelling) in the brain which will worsen brain & stroke.

11

Why do diabetic patients become dehydrated?

glucose spills over into urine and water follows leading to dehydration

12

What are the two hormones that are responsible for controlling glucose?

Insulin & glucagon

13

What is a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body.

Insulin

14

What are the 3 functions of insulin?

1. glucose out of blood into the cell
2. cause liver to take glucose out of blood and convert it to glycogen
3. decreases blood glucose by action of 1&2

15

Does insulin facilitate the movement of glucose into the cell?

Yes, it attaches to a cell at a certain point and opens the door which allows a protein to carry glucose in.

16

Do insulin and glucagon have the opposite effect on blood glucose levels

Yes
INSULIN ISECREATED WHEN GLUCOSE IS HIGH AND WORKS TO DECREASE BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL BY HELPING TO MOVE GLUCOSE OUT OF THE BLOOD INTO THE CELL

GLUCAGON IS SECRETED WHEN GLUCOSE IS LOW AND WILL WORK TO INCREASE GLUCOSE LEVELS

17

what is glucagon's main purpose

is to raise and maintain blood glucose levels

If glucose decrease below 70mg/dL glucagon is secreted.

18

what is consider a normal glucose range

80-120mg/dL

19

What is the range 1 hour after a person eats?

120-140mg/dL

20

what is BGL?

Blood Glucose level

21

How long can glycogen be stored in the liver?

24-48 hours

22

What is a glucometer?

a portable device that determines blood glucose levels of a patient

23

what is (mg/dL)

milligrams per deciliter

24

what condition is defined as a BGL of 60mg/dL or less with signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia

or

50mg/dL without signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia

25

what is the primary sign of Hypoglycemia

Altered mental status

26

A condition defined as a BGL of greater than 120mg/dL?

Hyperglycemia

27

what supplies will you need to test with a glucose meter?

Glucose meter
test strips
lancet
alcohol swab

28

what is the primary problem of diabetes mellitus

1) a lack of insulin being secreted by the pancreas
2) the inability of the cell receptors to recognize the insulin and allow the glucose to enter at a normal rate.

29

what is polydipsia

frequent thirst

30

What is polyuria

frequent urination