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A type of incomplete spinal cord injury, that is produced by injury of the motor and sensory paths of the anterior part of the spinal cord.

Patients cannot feel coarse sensations such as pain and temperature, which are carried through the anterolateral pathways. However, proprioceptive sense and sensation of fine touch are preserved.

anterior cord syndrome


a loss of sensation and motor function (paralysis and anesthesia) that is caused by the lateral hemisection (cutting) of the spinal cord.

Brown-Sequard syndrome


is an acute cervical spinal cord injury that is characterized by disproportionately greater motor impairment in upper compared to lower extremities, and variable degree of sensory loss below the level of injury in combination with bladder dysfunction and urinary retention

central cord syndrome


first seven vertebrae that form the neck

is delicate - housing the spinal cord that sends messages from the brain to control all aspects of the body - while also remarkably flexible, allowing movement in all directions, and strong.

cervical spine


consists of 3 or more small bones fused together at the bottom of the spine.



means that there is no movement or sensation below the level of the injury.

both sides of the body are equally affected.

will result in complete paraplegia or complete tetraplegia.

complete spinal cord injury


a circular or rounded flat plate



refers to any injury to the spinal cord that is caused by trauma instead of disease.

incomplete spinal cord injury


refers to the lower back, where the spine curves inward toward the abdomen. L1 - L5

lumbar spine


is a condition that causes a prolonged drop in blood pressure when you go from lying down or sitting to standing.

occurs in people with an existing neurologic disease, such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy (MSA), or pure autonomic failure (PAF)

symptoms of dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting -

neurogenic hypotension


is defined as an abnormal persistent erection of the penis.



is a triangular-shaped bone at the bottom of the spine.

sacral spine


is composed of a series of bones called vertebrae stacked one upon another. There are four regions of the spine:

cervical (neck)
thoracic (chest/trunk)
lumbar (low back)
sacral (pelvic)

spinal column


comes off the base of the brain, runs throughout the cervical and thoracic spine, and ends at the lower part of the thoracic spine

does not run through the lumbar spine (lower back). After the spinal cord stops in the lower thoracic spine, the nerve roots from the lumbar and sacral levels come off the bottom of the cord like a "horse's tail" (cauda equina) and exit the spine (view the spinal nerve roots with

spinal cord


spinal cord injury is caused due to trauma, the body goes into a state known as

spinal shock


refers to the upper- and middle-back. It joins the cervical spine and extends down about five inches past the bottom of the shoulder blades, where it connects with the lumbar spine.

labeled T1-T12

is built for power and flexibility (e.g. lifting heavy objects, touching the toes),

is built for stability. This stability plays an important role in holding the body upright and providing protection for the vital organs in the chest.

thoracic spine


1.bone in spinal column: a bone of the spinal column, typically consisting of a thick body, a bony arch enclosing a hole for the spinal cord, and stubby projections that connect with adjacent bones